Papers

This section presents a collection of AHP/ANP papers. Whether you are a student, academic and/or professional in the field of decision making, you can help us expand this collection by sharing your papers on decision making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP).

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A BOCR structure for privatisation effective criteria of Iran newsprint paper industry

Majid Azizi, Mansooreh Azizpour
Journal: International Journal of Production Research
The privatisation of the Iran newsprint industry has caused an increase in production and decrease in importation. Recognition of effective criteria in newsprint privatisation will accelerate privatisation of the industry. The goal of the research is expediting privatisation in the Iran newsprint...

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A comparative model of kinds of composite wood regarding customers’ perspective using Analytic Network Process

Majid Azizi, Fatemeh Sarfi, Mehdi Faezipour, Amin Arian
Journal: International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making
In order to compare composite wood in Iran, a hierarchy was designed to prioritise benefits, opportunities, costs and risks using analytic hierarchy process rating approach. BOCR structure was determined by providing questionnaires and collecting data from knowledgeable persons who were consumers...

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A decision making model for investment and development of construction panels

Majid Azizi, Mohammad Modarres
Journal: Journal of Forestry Research
A study was conducted to select the best alternative for the development of construction panels as well as investment in its manufacturing in Iran. Three alternatives are considered, cement-bonded wood composite product, substituted products (such as concrete panel) sandwich panel and a mixture o...

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A decision making model regarding wood panel selection

Majid Azizi
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Identification of preferable wood panels according to market share, competition and quality is necessary until the investors and manufacturers help to develop the industry and preserve the market share. The quality and quantity of Iranian wood panels is growing successfully. The preservation of m...

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A decision model to select facial tissue raw material, a case from Iran

Majid Azizi, Mohammad Modarres
Journal: OR Insight
The objective of this research is to design an approach for selecting appropriate raw materials for facial tissues in Iran. There are three possibilities to maintain raw materials: (1) imported virgin pulp; (2) bagasse (sugar cane residue) plus some imported raw materials; and (3) recycled paper ...

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A hierarchical model to enhance financial and strategic performance of an oil and gas company in Malaysia

Deven Krishnan, Rafikul Islam, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Journal: International Jourr of Enegy Sector Management
The study intends to develop a hierarchical model through prioritisation of the core competencies with respect to competitive advantage, financial as well as strategic performance for an oil and gas company in Malaysia. The prioritisation results will help the company considered in the present re...

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A marijuana legalization model using benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) analysis

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences
Marijuana has been regarded as an evil in our society because of abuse and addiction. However, its legalization and use in several states have shown that from the standpoint of its benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) the overall decision should be to legalize it in our greater society...

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A measure of world influence

Thomas Saaty, Mohamad W. Khouja
Journal: Journal of Peace Science
It is not unusual to think of and write about power without adequate definition. Power is such a rich concept that even for special use it would carry more meaning than maybe intended. Power is closely identified with the ability to do something. Influence is the capacity to sway others to obtain...

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A Measurement Model for Accreditation Process of Graduate Schools in Indonesia with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Yani H. Soegito, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: The 6th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Education sector in Indonesia has been facing great challenge, indicated by the country's very low position in the ranking of workforce competitiveness among nations in the world. The Department of Education has established the National Accreditation Body (abbreviated as BAN) as one of the wa...

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A Model for the Control of Arms

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
As the problems and ideas of arms control and disarmament have gained substantial momentum in recent years, the need has developed to look into the refinements of disarmament questions within the framework of national security. Here we have sought to initiate the development of a framework within...

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A model of neural impulse firing and synthesis

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
Neurons are decision makers that decide from instant to instant whether to fire or not to fire based on information received through neurotransmitter electric charge. In firing they accomplish two goals. First, they pass information to other neurons which in their turn make a decision to fire or ...

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A model of supplying poplar wood for Iranian paper & wood factories

Majid Azizi
Journal: Journal of Forestry Research
The objective of this research is to design a method for an appropriate alternative to supply poplar wood as raw material for wood and paper factories in Iran. Due to the destruction of the forests and lack of proper plantation, replacement of the forest wood by the fast growing wood is vital to ...

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A Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach to Performance Evaluation of Mutual Funds: A Case Study in Serbia

Milena Jaksic, Predrag Mimovic, Miljan Lekovic
Journal: Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research
In this paper we evaluate the performance of nine mutual funds in the Republic of Serbia in the period 2011-2013 by integrating traditional approaches for measuring absolute efficiency and the selected multi-criteria decision-making methods for measuring relative efficiency. The aim of our resear...

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A multiple criteria analysis of factors affecting markets of engineered wood products with respect to customer preferences: A case study of Particleboard and MDF

Fatemeh Sarfi, Majid Azizi, Amin Arian
Journal: Forest Science and Practice
Of considerable importance and a principal goal in business is the creation of customer satisfaction. Evaluation of end user preferences for producers of particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) requires indices for the assessment of markets and modification of product quality. However, ...

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A natural way to make momentous decisions

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of scientific & industrial research
A brief introduction to making decisions by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is given. A simple illustration of how to decide on which of three people should get a heart transplant is provided. How to structure a decision problem and how to enter judgments semantically, transform them to pair...

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A new approach in group decision making based on pairwise comparisons

Mohammad Azadfallah, Majid Azizi
Journal: J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development
A review of the supplier selection literature shows that the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is one of the most commonly applied methods in practice. However, a major drawback in applying AHP is that the required comparisons rises quadratically with the entities to be compared. In this pa...

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A new approach to performance measurement the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Eren Erdener, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Design Methods and Theories
A new approach to performance measurement the Analytic Hierarchy Process

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A new approach to the middle east conflict: the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
We present an alternative process to address the Israeli Palestinian conflict. It does so in two ways that are different from past efforts. The first is by formally structuring the conflict and the second is the manner in which discussions are conducted and conclusions drawn.

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A new macroeconomic forecasting and policy evaluation method using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical Modelling
The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to show how forecasts can be made of the effects of monetarist, Keynesian and supply-side macroeconomic policies and to determine their impact on important variables such as unemployment, inflation and GNP growth.

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A Nonlinear Programming Model in Optimum Communication Satellite Use

Thomas Saaty
Journal: SIAM Review
In this note we formulate the problem of allocating communication needs of different cities via relay-type satellites. Our model turns out to be a dynamic (over successive time periods) quadratic nonlinear program requiring integer solutions. Such solutions have been recently studied by Kunzi a...

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A note on the AHP and expected value theory

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
It is shown here that one cannot simply take columns of numbers, normalize them and add to obtain results corresponding to operations in the AHP. This is what traditional expected value theory using a single scale would lead one to do. Care needs to be exercised. What one must do is to interpret ...

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A ratio scale metric and the compatibility of ratio scales: The possibility of arrow's impossibility theorem

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Applied Mathematics Letters
We develop a metric for ratio scales and explore the notion of compatibility of two sets of measurements of a set of objects or properties on a ratio scale. We briefly address Arrow's impossibility theorem. We maintain that it is not as impossible as claimed when, as in reality, a certain degree ...

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A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of mathematical psychology
The purpose of this paper is to investigate a method of scaling ratios using the principal eigenvector of a positive pairwise comparison matrix. Consistency of the matrix data is defined and measured by an expression involving the average of the nonprincipal eigenvalues. We show that λmax = n is ...

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A set theory justification of Garuti's compatibility index

Claudio Garuti
Journal: Journal of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis
This paper is oriented to increase the certainty and reliability of G index through different examples and show that G index expression can be reached by two different paths. The first path is using concepts of vector algebra in a weighted space. The second path is using concepts of set theory. N...

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A simple approach for on-line tool wear monitoring using the analytic hierarchy process

S Das, Rafikul Islam, A. B. Chattopadhyay
Journal: Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture
A wide variety of on-line tool condition monitoring techniques have been developed to the present time. Timely decision making for cutting tool indexing needs a proper method for assessment of the state of the tool on-line. The present work demonstrates a very simple system based on cutting forc...

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A socio-economic problem regarding poplar plantation and a problem solving model by AHP

Majid Azizi, Kazem Mohammadzadeh
Journal: Socio-Economic Problems and the State
The current research presents the best solution for socio-economic problem regarding poplar plantation in Eastern and Western Azerbaijan, Iran. Planting fast growing species such as poplar is highly profitable in wood farming in Eastern and Western Azerbaijan, hence identification of socio-econom...

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A strategic model for location selection of wood industry, an application of ANP

Majid Azizi, Mohammad Modarres
Journal: Journal of Applied Sciences
The objective of this research is to design a method for selection of an appropriate location to establish plywood and veneer plants in Iran. Due to the climate of this region as well as the destruction of the forests and lack of proper plantation, the supporting forests to feed this industry are...

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A STRATEGIC MODEL FOR LOCATION SELECTION OF WOOD INDUSTRY: AN APPLICATION OF TOPSIS

Majid Azizi
Journal: The Pakistan Journal of Forestry
The location of wood industry has not been selected by proper planning in Iran and for that reason the production rate is not satisfactory. Effective indicators in location of the Industry were identified and a hierarchy was constructed based on five major groups of criteria. The weights of the i...

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A strategic model for safety during the Hajj pilgrimage: An ANP application

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz
Journal: Journal of Systems science and systems engineering
Saudi Arabia every year receives more than two million Muslims from all over the world to perform the Hajj, the Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah. It must take place during a specific period of the year in a specific and limited space. In spite of the effort government agencies devote to this event, a ...

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A strategic model for selecting the location of furniture factories: A case of the study of furniture

Majid Azizi, Nemat Mohebbi, Rahim Mohebbi Gargari, Mohsen Ziaie
Journal: International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making
Selecting the best place for a factory among some proposed locations based on various indices is a decision-making multi-criteria issue. This issue is one of the most critical steps in establishing the factory since the results of this decision will have economically, socially, environmentally an...

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A structured scientific solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict: the Analytic Hierarchy Process approach

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas, H. J. Zoffer
Journal: Decision Analytics
While the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has raged for decades, in all of its ramifications there has never been a totally structured or scientific approach to the conflict with all of its details. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approaches the problem along these lines. There are a plethora o...

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A Systemic Rebuttal to the Criticism of Using the Eigenvector for Priority Assessment in Decision Making

Claudio Garuti, Valerio Salomon, Isabel Spencer
Journal: Computacion y Sistemas
Arguments have been provided against the use of the eigenvector as the operator that derives priorities. A highlight of the arguments is that the eigenvector solution does not always respect the condition of ordinal preference (COP) based on the decision maker's judgments. While this conditio...

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A theory of analytical hierarchies applied to political candidacy

Thomas Saaty, J. P. Bennett
Journal: Behavioral Science
A theory of hierarchies is applied to structure complex decision problems about groups, organizations, societies or supranational systems in three steps. The problem is decomposed into a number of strata, each with several elements which may be people, variables, policies, and so on. We next anal...

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About a hundred years of creativity in decision making

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Can all the methods people invented to do decision making be right all the time? Maybe for making trivial decisions, but not in the case of those that involve dependence and feedback and need complete analysis of benefits, opportunities, costs and risks to get an overall justifiable outcome.

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Absolute and relative measurement with the AHP. The most livable cities in the United States

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
In this paper it is shown that there are two types of measurement involved in the AHP, absolute and relative. The first requires a standard with which to compare elements, but mostly alternatives at the bottom of the hierarchy. The process leads to absolute preservation in the rank of the alterna...

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Absolute measurement and ideal synthesis in AHP

Valerio Salomon
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The purpose of this essay is not to investigate why AHP has not been often applied with absolute measurement and ideal synthesis.

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Addressing with brevity criticism of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas, Rozann Whitaker
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The paper provides an overview that covers the main criticisms of the AHP and the authors replies to them. Because there have been many papers that reply to criticisms, the thrust here is to classify them and reply to them briefly in each category without giving lengthy repetitions of what is alr...

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Aggregating Individual Judgments and Prioriies with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Ernest Forman, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is often used in group settings where group members either engage in discussion to achieve a consensus or express their own preferences. Individual judgments can be aggregated in different ways. Two of the methods that have been found to be most useful are the...

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AHP as an Effective Consensus-Based Selection Tool: A case of Personnel Selection for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Saudi Arabia

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz, Syeda-Masooda Mukhtar, Laila M. Al-Sharqi
Journal: Journal for Global Business Advancement
While merits of normative judgements may be questionable when objectivity is the desired criterion in management decisions, which tend to be inherently unstructured such as personnel selection, evidence suggests that the perspective of traditional personnel selection methods remains relatively re...

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An analysis of cleaner production planning by applying analytic hierarchy process: a wood industry case study

Fatemeh Hasani Khorshidi, Majid Azizi, Charles Ray, Mohammad Mahdi Faezipour, Hamid Zarea Hosseinabadi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering
The production operation plays a crucial role in reducing environmental impacts in various stages of the life cycle of products, from extraction of materials to production, end use, reuse, and recycling. Therefore, the process of reducing these environmental impacts in relation to production cont...

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An Analytic Hierarchy Process model of group consensus

Qingxing Dong, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
In group decision making, a certain degree of consensus is necessary to derive a meaningful and valid outcome. This paper proposes a consensus reaching model for a group by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It supports people to improve their group consensus level through an updating of...

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An Analytic Network Process model for financial-crisis forecasting

Michael Niemira, Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of Forecasting
We discuss and develop an imbalance-crisis turning point model to forecast the likelihood of a financial crisis based on an Analytic Network Process framework. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a general theory of relative measurement used to derive composite-priority-ratio scales from indivi...

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An ANP model to develop a National Transformation Plan

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz, Nahla Samrgandi
Journal: International Journal of Analytic Hierarchy Process
In October 2015, The Saudi Council for Economic and Development Affairs unveiled an austerity plan in response to a drop in the price of oil to around US $26, which threw the country into an unexpected deficit of about $100 billion. Later on, an austerity plan evolved into the National Transforma...

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An Empirical Comparison of Two Choice Aggregation Methods in the Analytic Hierarchy process

Sibs von Solms, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: The 6th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
his paper builds on the theoretical discussion presented in an earlier paper (this issue) on the importance of and several problems related to participative group decision-making. A variation of how the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) can be applied to address the problems and aid participative ...

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An essay on how judgment and measurement are different in science and in decision making

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
In decision making the priority scales are derived objectively after subjective judgments are made, and they reflect the importance of the influences we considered. The process is the opposite of what is done in the physical sciences where the subjectivity of interpreting the final number comes a...

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An essay on rank preservation and reversal

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
Rank preservation and reversal, so fundamental in decision making, have been an unresolved issue in the field of economics and utility theory and came into focus when the Analytic Hierarchy Process was developed because it uses paired comparisons that inevitably make the priorities of the alterna...

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An exposition of the AHP in reply to the paper "remarks on the Analytic Hierarchy Process"

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Management science
An exposition of the AHP in reply to the paper " remarks on the analytic hierarchy process"

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An Indicator of One’s Life Satisfaction

Thomas Saaty, H. J. Zoffer, Lirong Wei
Journal: European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
How satisfied is each of us with the fulfillment of his life? In this paper after a thorough search of the literature about satisfaction, 58 criteria and subcriteria related to satisfaction or fulfillment were identified and arranged in a hierarchic structure. A process of prioritization known as...

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An innovative orders-of-magnitude approach to AHP-based mutli-criteria decision making: Prioritizing divergent intangible humane acts

Thomas Saaty, Jennifer Shang
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
An innovative Analytic Hierarchy Process-based structure is developed to capture the relationship between various levels of activities contributed by people to society. Physical objects have widespread extension and degrees of importance that often differ by many orders of magnitude. Similarly, m...

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An objective approach to faculty promotion and tenure by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Research in Higher Education
This paper proposes a novel evaluation approach for the selection of candidates for promotion and/or tenure. The decision problem is conceptualized as a hierarchy of factors and a mathematical procedure known as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for successively “weighting” or prioriti...

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An Unifying Theory for Social Choice and Synergistic Group Decision Making

Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Proceedings of the fifth International Symposium on The Analytic Hierarchy Process
The process of aggregating individual judgments in a population at large and in a synergistic group (team) is fundamentally different. Arrow's Impossibility Theorem shows that it is generally impossible to derive a rational group choice from individual ordinal preferences with more than two a...

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Analysis of Marketing strategic planning in the home furniture industry by applying ANP: a case study of the Iranian home furniture industry

Majid Azizi, Hamzehali Mansouri
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This study was carried out because of the lack of research on strategic planning in Iran's home furniture market. Accordingly, in this study, we developed a decision-making model to select the best solution for strategic planning in the industry. After determining the strategic criteria or fa...

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Analysis of Product Viability and Competition, and Selection of Strategy in Tool Steel Industry: Ordinal Methods vs the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Hary Kintarso, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: The 6th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Literature in strategic management offers methodologies for conducting quantitative analysis for product viability, competition, as well as strategy formulation and selection. Most of the proposed methodologies use ordinal type of scale for measuring relative priority, which is scientifically una...

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Analytic hierarchy process and bank ranking in Serbia

Jaksic Milena, Mimovic Predrag, Todorovic Violeta
Journal: Industrija
The determination of the financial identifiers by the implementation of the horizontal and vertical analysis, for each year separately, and then their mutual comparison for certain periods of time as well, enables the perception of the general financial situation of banks during a certain peri...

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Analytic hierarchy process applied to supply chain management

Valerio Salomon, Claudemir Leif Tramarico, Fernando Augusto Silva Marins
Journal: Applications and Theory of Analytic Hierarchy Process - Decision Making for Strategic Decisions
Resource allocation (RA) and supplier selection (SS) are two major decision problems regarding supply chain management (SCM). A supply chain manager may solve these problems by considering a single criterion, for instance, costs, customer satisfaction, or delivery time. Applying analytic hierarch...

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Analytical hierarchy process for optimised choice of machines for secondary wood industries

Majid Azizi
Journal: Journal of the institute of wood science
The choice of the best machines for furniture industries is very important due to the high investment in the industry. The aim of this research was to determine and prioritize three types of machine which can be used in the secondary wood industries. After obtaining the information in the field o...

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Application of sensitivity analysis for assessment of energy and environmental alternatives in the manufacture by using analytic hierarchy process

Payam Ghorbannezhad, Majid Azizi, Charles Ray, Changkyoo Yoo, Omid Ramazani
Journal: Environment Protection Engineering
Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) was used to make comparative analysis of projects or heterogeneous measures for prioritization criteria and subcriteria simultaneously in a complex situation. The aim of this paper is to determine the alternatives and the sensitivity of main factors affecting...

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Applications of analytical hierarchies

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation
In a previous article which appeared in this journal I outlined some of the ideas involved in measuring priorities in hierarchical systems. It was my hope to show that when dealing with complexity, a hierarchical structure with ratio scale measurement provides a natural expression of the mind to...

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Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to long range planning processes

James Emshoff, Thomas Saaty
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
This paper considers the long range planning process from the point of view both of projecting forward likely or desired changes from the current position to define a possible future state, and of identifying desirable future states and working backwards from those to consider ways in which they ...

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Applying ANP for raw material supply in Iranian paper industry

Majid Azizi, Mohammad Modarres
Journal: OR Insight volume
The aim of this paper is to develop a strategic plan for selecting the best options for the supply of raw material to feed paper producing plants. The decision-making is examined within the framework of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR). A hierarchy is used to prioritize the BOCR, ...

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Applying ANP to analyze the role of design in the furniture industry

Majid Azizi, Gholamreza Mehdikhanloo
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This study was carried out due to the severe dearth of research on the role of design in furniture production and the furniture market in Iran. Accordingly, this research proposes a decision making model to select the best solution for the role of design in this industry. The four possibilities t...

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Architectural Design by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Miguel H. Beltran
Journal: Design Methods and Theories
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is explained and applied in another article in the same journal, is used to illustrate the architectural design of a house for a family of three. The plan of the house was develop to satisfy the family's needs by considering the size of the lot, the siz...

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Assessing and Ranking HALMAS Parks in Malaysia: An Application of Importance-Performance Analysis and AHP

Rafikul Islam, Fatima El Madkouri
Journal: Journal of Islamic Marketing
This paper aims to measure the level of importance and satisfaction on a number of items in the day-to-day running of the halal parks in Malaysia and to rank a selected halal parks on the basis of a number of performance criteria.

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Assessment and prioritizing branding factors effective in the furniture industry

Mohammad Ghofrani, Vajihe Farshchi, Majid Azizi
Journal: Journal of Lignocellulose
The present paper aims at assessment and prioritizing of branding factors affecting the furniture industry and offering appropriate solutions to branding in furniture industry. To this end, after basic studies and review of other researches, 23 patterns and sub-patterns under 5 basic criteria of ...

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Automatic decision-making: Neural firing and response

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
In contrast with conscious decision-making, there are numerous subconscious decisions that we make without thinking about them. Some are biological and are made by different parts of our body to keep it alive and functioning normally. Others are a result of repetition and training that we can the...

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Axiomatic foundation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Management science
This paper contains an axiomatic treatment of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The set of axioms corresponding to hierarchic structures are a special case of axioms for priority setting in systems with feedback which allow for a wide class of dependencies. The axioms highlight: (1) the recip...

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Axioms of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and its Generalization to Dependence and Feedback: The Analytic Network Process (ANP)

Thomas Saaty, Konrad Kułakowski
Journal: eprint arXiv:1605.05777
The AHP/ANP are multicriteria decision-making theories that deal with both hierarchic structures when the criteria are independent of the alternatives and with networks when there is any dependence within and between elements of the decision. Both of them have been repeatedly used in practice by ...

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B
Basic theory of the Analytic Hierarchy Process: How to make a decision

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales
An assumption arising from the practice of science and engineering since the middle ages is that because nature is physical, we should be able to relate all measurement to physical dimensions. But that is not true. Human thinking and feeling exist in the physical world but they are not matter or ...

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Better world through better decision making

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Symp. Anal. Hierarchy Process
To change this world from its primitive habit of using words and language to arrive at decisions by making tradeoffs which require the use of numbers, we need to work hard to promote this way of thinking to teach the whole world and its politicians how to measure the intangibles involved in the d...

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C
Center for conflict resolution

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
There are many organizations in the world today that are devoted to studying arms control and conflict resolution. None is really able to provide direct assistance to conflicting parties. what is needed is an international center for Conflict Resolution, located in a neutral territory, that will ...

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Choice of Life Insurance Companies by using Analytic Hierarchy Process: Experience of the Republic of Serbia

Predrag Mimovic, Milena Jaksic, Violeta Todorovic
Journal: Journal of Insurance and Financial Management
In the second half of the twentieth century, real and financial property sector underwent a number of changes caused by intense globalization, deregulation, and technical and technological revolution. These changes included, among other things, increased risk exposure, typical of activities in th...

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Choosing the best city of the future

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
Journal: Journal of Urban Management
This paper describes various possibilities of the cities of futures considering various constraints and demand of society, environment and geography. The need for future cities arises because of the rapid growth in population and thereby causing a decline in the living standards. In the United St...

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Clarifying the Business Strategy of the Indonesian Pawning State Company: Combining AHP and Balanced Scorecard

Kirti Peniwati, Nani Koespriani
Journal: Proceedings of the fifth International Symposium on The Analytic Hierarchy Process
The most source of failure in implementing business strategy of company is because of the inability to translate business strategy to strategic actions. Translating strategic objectives into strategic actions is very important since it will determine the strategy implementation success. Balance S...

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Cleaner production solution selection for paper making – A case study of Latif paper products Co. Iran

Majid Azizi, Yaghoob Asadizadeh, Charles Ray, Yahya Hamzeh
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering
The objective of this research is to design an approach for selecting appropriate solutions to efficiently and productively reduce environmental pollution and water, energy and raw material consumption in a recycled paper manufacturing facility, the paper mill in Latif, Iran. To reach this goal, ...

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Cleaner production: a case study of Kaveh paper mill

Payam Ghorbannezhad, Majid Azizi, Shih-Chan Ting, Mohammd Layeghi, Omid Ramezani
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering
The pulp and paper industry is under increasing pressure to reduce its energy consumption and impact on the environment. The ‘Cleaner Production’ (CP) approach has been widely utilised as a tool to meet environmental concerns by industry. However, because of the high initial capital cost of CP im...

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Coefficient perturbation of a constrained extremum

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
A schedule of allocating labor (in a shipping operation) whose available amount is a function of time, to different tasks, in order to minimize the total cost, is given. The problem is cast in linear-programming form in which all the coefficients are parameterized. An illustration is given follow...

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Comparative Measurement of Investment Funds Performance with Analytical Network Process: A Case Study in Serbia

Milena Jaksic, Predrag Mimovic, Violeta Todorovic
Journal: Proceedings of the 3rd International OFEL Conference on Corporate Governance, Management and Entrepreneurship
The measurement of financial institutions performance is a pre-condition for a complete view of the financial system efficiency. Thus, the modern financial environment imposes the need for constant finding and defining of the new concepts and performance measurement models with the aim of raising...

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Comparison of eigenvalue, logarithmic least squares and least squares methods in estimating ratios

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Mathematical modelling
Three methods—the eigenvalue, logarithmic least squares, and least squares methods—used to derive estimates of ratio scales from a positive reciprocal matrix are analyzed. The criteria for comparison are the measurement of consistency, dual solutions, and rank preservation. It is shown that the e...

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Compatibility indices between priority vectors

Claudio Garuti, Valerio Salomon
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
In the Analytic Hierarchy Process priorities are derived from judgments. Different priority vectors, however, can be obtained in the solution of a problem. The main objective of this article is to present two different compatibility indices between priority vectors that have been suggested. A com...

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Conflict resolution and the falkland islands invasions

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Interfaces
The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is compared with game and metagame theories for analyzing conflicts. The AHP helps to structure the problem, generate and synthesize judgments, and carry out a benefit/cost analysis of various policies. The Falkland Islands crisis is examined using the judgmen...

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Consensus with the Analytic Hierarchy Process at Dar Al-Hekma, Saudi Arabia

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz
Journal: International Symposium of Analytic Hierarchy Process 2001
I designed and implemented a multicriteria group decision-making model based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process to select the best candidates to send overseas for graduate studies, eventually becoming teachers at the newly created Dar Al-Hekma women’s college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The paper hig...

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Consistency & Compatibility, Two sides of the same coin

Claudio Garuti
Journal: International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process 2016
In MCDM to have an index of consistency for pair comparison matrices is a very important matter. This index may help to produce better metrics and of course better answers to the problem, which is the final purpose of majority of the MCDM methods. To illustrate the relevance of this matter, this ...

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Constructing a maqasid (objective) based performance measurement index for Islamic banks

Kazi Md. Tarique, Rafikul Islam, Mustafa Omar Mohamed, Dzuljastri Abdul Razak, Hamdino bin Hamdan
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The current study aims to develop a Maqasid al-Shari’ah (objective of Islamic Law) based a new performance evaluation index for Islamic banks. In order to achieve the objective, the current study conducted twelve semi-structured interviews of academics and practitioners who specialize in Islamic ...

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Continuous pairwise comparisons

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Fundamenta Informaticae
One often assumes that comparisons are discrete and carried out in a matrix of numbers. However, our eyes and other senses perform comparisons in a continuous way by making many simultaneously. Here the mathematics of pairwise comparisons is generalized to the continuous case. It is more likely t...

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Criteria for Evaluating Group Decision-Making Methods. In: Decision Making with the Analytic Network Process

Kirti Peniwati
Journal: International Series in Operations Research & Management Science
This paper has brought many criteria and many methods under one umbrella. We believe that our schematization is a good start and may eventually be improved upon in subsequent revisions and extensions of the criteria used and in debating the importance of these criteria and the accuracy with which...

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Criteria for Evaluating Group Decision-Making Methods. In: Decision Making with the Analytic Network Process

Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
This paper brings many criteria and many methods under one umbrella and compares them. The schematization given here is a good start and may eventually be improved upon in subsequent revisions by extending the criteria used and by further debating the importance of these criteria and their pertin...

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Critical success factors of the challenges in providing quality education: A study on Malaysian private higher learning institutes

Rafikul Islam, Azilah Anis, Anisah Abdullah
The issue of quality education in higher learning institutions is timely and crucial due to the Malaysian government's aspiration to turn the country into a centre of educational excellence in the Asian region. Quality education acts as an indicator of the institution's ability to provi...

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Critical success factors of the nine challenges in Malaysian vision 2020

Rafikul Islam
Journal: Social-Economic Planning Sciences
By the year 2020, Malaysia aspires to become a fully developed nation. In order to realize this vision, formally termed ‘Vision 2020’, Malaysia must address nine strategic challenges identified by the government of former Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad. These challenges are: (1) Esta...

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Decision making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International journal of services sciences
Decisions involve many intangibles that need to be traded off. To do that, they have to be measured along side tangibles whose measurements must also be evaluated as to, how well, they serve the objectives of the decision maker. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a theory of measurement thro...

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Decision making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Scientia Iranica
In this paper, an introduction is given to decision-making theory, the Analytic Hierarchy Process. In the AHP, a decision hierarchy is constructed with a goal, criteria and alternatives. The criteria are pairwise compared for their importance with respect to the goal to derive a scale of relative...

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Decision Making with The Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Its Super-Decisions

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Software The National Missile Defence (NMD) Example
There are three phases in the creation of the structure of a complex decision, 1) the subjective personal, group or corporate values, 2) the interface- merits of the decision between the first (the subjective), and the third (the objective) phases: Benefits, opportunities, costs and risks and the...

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Decision making, new information, ranking and structure

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical Modelling
The rank of a set of alternatives can change if a new criterion is introduced into the set of criteria, but it can also change if the importances of the criteria depend on the number of alternatives and on the strength of their ranking. As a result a new alternative may change the relative order ...

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Decision making, scaling, and number crunching

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Decision Sciences
The purpose of this note is to comment on the artificiality of using known scales of measurement (or conveniently improvised numbers) to make decisions. In particular, the pitfalls of trying to please the decision maker and of using normalization as a number crunching tool are discussed. Finally,...

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Decision making—the Analytic Hierarchy and Network Processes (AHP/ANP)

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of systems science and systems engineering
This is the first part of an introduction to multicriteria decision making using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and its generalization, the Analytic Network Process (ANP). The discussion involves individual and group decisions both with the independence of the criteria from the alternatives...

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Decision making for selection of suitable location for plywood and veneer manufacturing units in Iran

Majid Azizi, S. Amiri, M. Modarres
Journal: Iranian Journal of Natural Resources
The objective of this paper is to develop a method for selecting the most suitable location for establishing wood industry unit. Decision making is examined within the framework of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR), called the merits of the decision. A hierarchy is developed to pri...

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Decision support model for supply chain management

Dragana Rejman Petrovic, Predrag Mimovic, Zora Arsovski
Journal: TEME
The purpose of this paper is the creation of a model for supply chain performance optimization and the development of a prototype of the decision support system. The study covered an efficient and agile supply chain type. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used (AHP) for the evaluation and ran...

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Decision-making under uncertainty – the integrated approach of the AHP and Bayesian analysis

Predrag Mimovic, Jelena Stankovic, Vesna Janković Milic
Journal: Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja
In situations where it is necessary to perform a large number of experiments in order to collect adequate statistical data which require expert analysis and assessment, there is a need to define a model that will include and coordinate statistical data and experts’ opinions. This article points o...

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Decision-making with the AHP: Why is the principal eigenvector necessary

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European journal of operational research
In this paper it is shown that the principal eigenvector is a necessary representation of the priorities derived from a positive reciprocal pairwise comparison judgment matrix A=(aij) when A is a small perturbation of a consistent matrix. When providing numerical judgments, an individual attempts...

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Decisions with the Analytic Network Process (ANP)

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP’96)
For very large model applications, AHP is known to suffer from a number of shortcomings related to time, effort and consistency at performing multiple painvise comparisons. A number of methods have been proposed to shorten the time and relate the effort to the decision precision required, or inde...

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Decisions, structure, and natural law

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The object here is to show that our thinking processes and our physical forms and those of all things that exist, are a result of response in nature to influences as stimuli, brought about by natural occurrences. The ideas are developed through a generalization of the role judgment plays in decis...

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Deforestation and the development of the Iranian wood industry

Majid Azizi
Journal: OR Insight
The raw materials of Iran's plywood industry are procured from the northern forests of Iran, and development of the plywood industry is intensively related to the situation of these forests. Previous research has indicated that the future development and location of plywood units in Iran will...

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Dependence and independence: From linear hierarchies to nonlinear networks

Thomas Saaty, Masahiro Takizawa
Journal: European journal of operational research
Most decisions need to be free from assumptions of independence to be faithful to the complex problems in which they arise. This paper illustrates how to generate priorities for decisions involving general types of dependence of criteria on alternatives, criteria on criteria and alternatives on a...

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Deriving the AHP 1-9 scale from first principles

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
We demonstrate how the integers 1 to 9 used in the Fundamental Scale of the AHP to represent pairwise comparison judgments can be derived from stimulus-response theory. The conditions required for the stability of the eigenvector of priorities, known from the mathematics literature, are briefly m...

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Determination and evaluation of effective criteria to location selection the optimal for establishing a fluting paper mills from agricultural residues of Mazandaran province

Abdollah barimani, Ali Ghasemian, Majid Azizi, Nemat Mohebbi, Majid Zabih Zadeh
Location selection for factory competitiveness in the market place plays an important role and should be chosen so that will leads achievement of the strategic advantages compared with other competitors. The objective of this study was determination of the effective criteria for decision making t...

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Determination of effective criteria in location selection of kiln wood drying units by AHP

Majid Azizi, Alireza Dehghan, Nemat Mohebbi
Journal: Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries
Identification and priority of the effective criteria in decision making of selecting most suitable location for establishing solar wood drying unitsin Iran was objective of this study. For this purpose, after preliminary investigation and interviews, 42 effective criteria and sub-criteria were i...

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Determination of effective criteria on development of export of Iran wood furniture by Analytic Hierarchy Process (Farsi)

H. Alizadeh, M. Faezipour, Majid Azizi, M. Ziaie
Journal: Journal of forest and wood products
Foreign trade has a significant role in economic development that some of experts know it as anengine or fuel for economic growth and other know it as growth car oil and some consider it asinternational inequalities exacerbated factors. In the classical theory of international trade, exportcharac...

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Determination of effective criteria on site selection for solar wood drying units in Iran

Majid Azizi, Alireza Dehghan, Nemat Mohebbi
Journal: Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries
Identification and priority of the effective criteria in decision making of selecting most suitable location for establishing solar wood drying unitsin Iran was objective of this study. For this purpose, after preliminary investigation and interviews, 42 effective criteria and sub-criteria were i...

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Determination of effective criteria on site selection of Iran wood furniture units, using AHP method

Majid Azizi, N. Mohebbi, R. Mohebbi, M. Ziaie
Journal: JOURNAL OF WOOD AND FOREST SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Suitable site-selection of industrial units creates proper conditions for optimum use of material and reduction of waste, and on the other hand, leads to more sell and hence high profit. The objective of this study is to determine the effective criteria in decision making of selecting the most su...

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Determination of major non development criteria for Iranian particleboard industry by applying AHP

Majid Azizi
Journal: The journal of the institute of wood science
Development trend of Iranian particleboard industry is not satisfactory. Effective indicators in non-development of the industry were divided into five major groups, i.e. by economic, raw material and product, social, technical and man power, rules and regulation plus 23 subsections. After obtain...

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Determining effective criteria on sustainable development of fluting paper making industry

Majid Azizi, Nemat Mohebbi, Mohammad Azadfallah
Journal: Economics, Management and Sustainability
Fluting paper industry seems to be significant from environmental view point. Accordingly, study on sustainable development criteria in this sector of Iran’s industry is regarded as a national necessity. The intent of the current study is to determine and prioritize the indices affecting sustaina...

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Determining the investment priorities in the wood and paper industries through applying TOPSIS

Majid Azizi, R. Dehghan, A. Eftekhari, M. Faezipour
Journal: Journal of forest and wood products
With regard to the importance of the conduction of limit resources to the superior industries, study on the country's priorities in the industrial areas and products is essential. Considering the fact that Qom province has special conditions, this provincecan be consideredas a wood centerin t...

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Developing a Disaster Risk Management Index for Latin American Countries

Claudio Garuti, Carmen Paz Castro, Juan Pablo Sarmiento
Journal: International Journal of Business and Systems Research
This work aims to create a risk disaster management index to measure how government institutions are dealing with disasters beyond legal and normative regulations advancing toward enforcement and implementation. With the complexity of the disaster risk management concept and its scope in mind, th...

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Developing a Hierarchical Model to Enhance Business Excellence in Hotel Industry of Bangladesh

Mahbubar Rahman, Rafikul Islam, Wan Rohaida Wan Husain, Khaliq Ahmad
Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
The study aims to develop a hierarchical model based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award to enable the ranking of quality dimensions required for achieving business excellence in the hotel industry of Bangladesh.

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Developing a rating model for selection solar wood drying location

Majid Azizi, Nemat Mohebbi, Fabio De Felice
Journal: Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia
Solar energy is one of the free and clean sources of energy supply without any destructive influence on the environment. Solar energy has been used in different forms for a long time. Concentrators of solar radiation can be used to produce unlimited, clean and free energy and save fossil fuels co...

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Diagnosis with dependent symptoms: Bayes theorem and the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Operations Research
Judgments are needed in medical diagnosis to determine what tests to perform given certain symptoms. For many diseases, what information to gather on symptoms and what combination of symptoms lead to a given disease are not well known. Even when the number of symptoms is small, the required numbe...

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Dirac distributions and threshold firing in neural networks

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Applied Mathematics Letters
We extend our earlier work on positive reciprocal kernels of Fredholm integral operators [9] to study firings and their synthesis in neural networks. First, we show that, in general, neural response in both spontaneous and non-spontaneous firing give rise to generalized functions of the Dirac t...

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Discrete search problem in pattern recognition

Thomas Saaty
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Suppose we have number of sensors identified by indexes 1 to N each related to a source that is either active or inactive. The set of sensors is sampled in parallel at regular intervals of wine and a record is made of the output of only one of the sensors, randomly chosen from the set if more tha...

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Dispersion of group judgments

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
To achieve a decision with which the group is satisfied, the group members must accept the judgments, and ultimately the priorities. This requires that (a) the judgments be homogeneous, and (b) the priorities of the individual group members be compatible with the group priorities. There are three...

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Economic forecasting with tangible and intangible criteria

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Economic Horizons
This paper provides a summary of a mathematical theory about the use of expert judgments in paired comparisons and how to derive priorities from them particularly when intangible factors are involved. An example to validate the process when applied to tangibles is given along with a simple decisi...

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Eigenvector and logarithmic least squares

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European journal of operational research
The eigenvector method deals with two questions simultaneously, closeness and order. Together, they belong to the field topology of order. The metric idea of closeness is inadequate to judge what is a good approximation to data involving order relations. There is usually a condition which relates...

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Employability Skills Development Approaches: An Application of the Analytic Network Process

Mohamad Shukri Abdul Hamid, Rafikul Islam, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf
Journal: Asian Academy of Management Journal
Institutions of higher learning need to re-evaluate their teaching-learning approaches to develop the necessary employability skills for their graduates. The main objectives of this study are to identify the important employability skills and the corresponding employability skills development app...

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Employee performance evaluation by the AHP: A case study

Rafikul Islam, S.M. Rasad
Journal: Asia Pacific Management Review
Employee performance evaluation is designed to assess each individual's contribution to the organization. The performance of individuals against organizational goals determines whether the organization meets its goals. The basic objectives of performance evaluations are two-fold: firstly to r...

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Estimating technological coefficients by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
We give a summary and an example of a new, systems oriented, method for estimating the input-output coefficients of a given economy. Our approach is based on pairwise comparisons among the sectors of the economy ranking them according to their priority on a ratio scale. What we obtain corresponds...

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Evaluating and Optimizing Technological Innovation Efficiency of Industrial Enterprises Based on Both Data and Judgments

Wei Gu, Thomas Saaty, Lirong Wei
Journal: International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making
Technological innovation as one of the most important competitive strategies for companies has attracted the attentions of companies and governments. In this paper, we present an evaluation method based on data and judgments to rank the technological innovation capability and technological innova...

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Evaluation of Sustainable Development of Wooden Furniture Industry Using Multi criteria Decision Making Method

Majid Azizi, Nemat Mohebbi, Fabio De Felice
Journal: Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia
Furniture manufacturing industry seems to be significant not only from economical and social standpoints but also from perspective of environmentally compatible industries. Accordingly, moving toward sustainable development in this sector of Iran's industry is regarded as a national necessity...

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Evaluation of the geographical concentration of furniture industry in Iran with the aim of furniture cluster development

Omid Hosseinzadeh, Yahya Hamzeh, Majid Azizi, Yahya Hamzeh
Journal: Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries
In this study, with the aim of furniture clusters development, the geographical distributionof furniture industries in Iran was evaluated and taking account this parameter, the areas with the high priority for the development of the furniture clusters were identified. LQ (Location Quotient) calcu...

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Examples of Difficulties with Ordinal Preferences that Disappear with Cardinal Preferences

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP’96)
We examine some examples where the use of cardinal preferences solves problems that occur when ordinal preferences are used exclusively. Ordinal preferences are the first step toward ranking alternatives but they are not the last. In general we are interested in deriving a consistent ranking of a...

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Experiments on rank preservation and reversal in relative measurement

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Mathematical and computer modelling
We show through simulation that three methods of scaling, distributive (uniqueness is important), ideal (uniqueness is not important), and utility (use of interval scales for the ideal) modes, yield the same ranking of alternatives with surprisingly high frequency, except for the case of copies o...

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Expert System for Ice Hockey Game Prediction: Data Mining with Human Judgment

Wei Gu, Thomas Saaty, Rozann Whitaker
Journal: International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making
This paper describes an expert system to predict National Hockey League (NHL) game outcome. A new method based on both data and judgments is used to estimate the hockey game performance. There are many facts and judgments that could influence an outcome. We employed the support vector machine to ...

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Explore and identify indicators of customer loyalty to the brand in the furniture industry by AHP (Parsi)

M. Ghofrani, V. Farshchi, Majid Azizi
Journal: Iranian Journal of wood and paper science research
Nowadays, producers are successful in Of getting profit in more efforts to satisfy our customers in target markets And build customer loyalty to your brand. The aim of this study was to study and identify factors influencing loyalty Customer to the brand in the furniture industry using Group Deci...

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Exploring optimization through hierarchies and ratio scales

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
This paper explores the concept of optimization by solely using the AHP and compares outcomes with those obtained in traditional optimization theory without and with constraints. The difference is essentially in the absence of the traditional black box involving complex manipulations in algebra o...

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Exploring the interface between hierarchies, multiple objectives and fuzzy sets

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Fuzzy sets and systems
The complexity of experience acquired through our senses and as interpreted by our mind, is fuzzy and must remain so as long as the meaning of things change as they are embedded in larger or different contexts to relate them to new ideas and new experiences. Here we give a method for measuring th...

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Extending the measurement of tangibles to intangibles

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
Journal: International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making
Tangibles have measurements generally on ratio scales with arbitrary units that are always interpreted by using judgments as to what particular purpose the measurements serve. How two measurements on a ratio scale are related with respect to dominance leads to forming their ratio which is a dimen...

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Factors affecting choice and image of ethnic restaurants in Serbia

Veljko Marinkovic, Vladimir Senic, Predrag Mimovic
Journal: British Food Journal
With the expansion of dining out, visiting ethnic restaurants is becoming one of dominant trends worldwide. Given the fact that ethnic restaurants involve a number of peculiar elements that are not present when visiting regular “local” restaurants, the purpose of this paper is to identify the key...

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Factors affecting the reputation of administrative furniture

Majid Azizi
Journal: Economics, Management and Sustainability
The present paper aims at assessment and prioritizing of reputation factors affecting the administrative furniture. To this end, after basic studies and review of other researches, 45 sub-criteria under 6 basic criteria of management, customer, services, social-cultural, technical and marketing- ...

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Financial and intangible factors in fleet lease or buy decision

Luis Vargas, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Industrial Marketing Management
We show that there is no single best solution in the leasing versus company ownership problem for the fleet administration industry as a whole. Because of the different styles and traditions of firms and because of the emphasis on intangibles beyond economics, a unifying framework of reference in...

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Five Papers by Conny Palm

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
Information from The Royal Board of Swedish Tele-Communications, edited by E. MALMGREN, contains five papers by Conny Palm prefaced by a short article, "Research on Telephone Traffic Carried by Full Availability Groups." It would be desirable to say more regarding these useful papers, but...

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Five Ways to Combine Tangibles with Intangibles

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This paper presents five different ways to establish weights for the criteria that govern making comparisons. Four of these can be done in the context of the AHP, but the fifth and most reliable one is obtained by using the ANP.

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Forecasting foreign exchange rates: an expert judgement approach

Andrew Blair, Robert Nachtmann, Josephine Olson, Thomas Saaty
Studies have indicated that forecasts by market experts can be more accurate than time series forecasts. This article describes a process for structuring an expert foreign exchange forecast using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The specific example developed is a forecast of the yen/dol...

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Forecasting the resurgence of the US economy in 2001: an expert judgment approach

Andrew Blair, Gershon Mandelker, Thomas Saaty, Rozann Whitaker
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
This paper describes a forecast of the date for the resumption of growth of the US economy in 2001. It uses an expert judgment approach within the framework of decision theory, the Analytic Hierarchy Process, as well as its generalization to dependence and feedback, the Analytic Network Process.

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Forecasting the resurgence of the US economy in 2010: An expert judgment approach

Andrew Blair, Gershon Mandelker, Thomas Saaty, Rozann Whitaker
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
This paper describes a forecast, performed in December 2008, of the time of the recovery of the U.S. economy from the contraction that began in December 2007. As in two earlier papers, the forecast uses an expert judgment approach, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), within the framework of dec...

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Foresight—Insight—Hindsight

James C. Frauenthal, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Two-Year College Mathematics Journal
Many mathematical models which attempt to describe problems stated in words appear trivial in hindsight. This is the case because the crucial insight needed to formulate the model is divulged by the structure of the model. It would be desirable to be able to teach this critical, inductive step in...

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Free trade discussions between Canada and the United States

Thomas Saaty, William Wedley
Journal: Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration
The free trade negotiations between Canada and the United States are a type of conflict where each side considers not only its own gains and losses but also Us perceptions of the gains and losses of the other side. The assessment involves intangibles and tradeoffs which can be structured and anal...

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Fundamentals of the Analytic Network Process—Dependence and feedback in decision-making with a single network

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Systems science and Systems engineering
The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a multicriteria theory of measurement used to derive relative priority scales of absolute numbers from individual judgments (or from actual measurements normalized to a relative form) that also belong to a fundamental scale of absolute numbers. These judgment...

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Fundamentals of the Analytic Network Process—multiple networks with benefits, costs, opportunities and risks

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of systems science and systems engineering
The general theory of the ANP enables one to deal with the benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (the BOCR merits) of a decision, by introducing the notion of negative priorities for C and R along with the rating (not comparison) of the top priority alternative synthesized for each of the fou...

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Furniture industry management by applying SCM

Majid Azizi, Mehdi Faezipour, Tahir Nisar
Journal: Cogent Business & Management
The purpose of this study is to use supply chain management in a wood furniture company and find its effect on the management indices of that company. The supply chain is a complex system consisting three or more commercial units which directly include at least one connected product procedure, fi...

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Fuzzy judgments and fuzzy sets

Thomas Saaty, Liem Tran
Journal: International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences
Using fuzzy set theory has become attractive to many people. However, the many references cited here and in other works, little thought is given to why numbers should be made fuzzy before plunging into the necessary simulations to crank out numbers without giving reason or proof that it works to ...

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Group decision making and the AHP

Thomas Saaty
Journal: The analytic hierarchy process
This paper focuses on the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process in a group setting. In particular, we present observations and suggestions that are intended to help in the planning and execution of a group decision-making effort in which AΗΡ plays a major role.

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Group decision making using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Indrani Basak, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical and computer modelling
Various methods of consensus of preference rankings of individuals are described in applying group decision making. Here, we discuss two different approaches, one deterministic and the other stochastic. The first is applicable to situations where the group is small, and the second applies to opin...

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Group decision-making: Head-count versus intensity of preference

Thomas Saaty, Jennifer Shang
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
This paper puts forth a framework for reshaping the group decision-making process. The proposed framework extends from the usual one-issue-at-a-time decision-making to one that involves several related issues simultaneously. Weaknesses of the traditional majority voting mechanism are first identi...

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H
Hierarchical analysis of behavior in competition: Prediction in chess

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Behavioral science
In this paper we use the analytic hierarchy process to combine technical and behavioral characteristics of chess players and predict the outcome of a championship match. The method also applies to decision making in living systems at the level of the group. Our approach to prediction deals with t...

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Hierarchies, reciprocal matrices, and ratio scales

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Discrete and System Models
We are interested in the problem of finding a scale which reflects the relative intensity of a property shared by n objects. The objects may be n stones and the properties may be their weights. What is needed is a theory that would enable us to conduct measurement which produces not only known re...

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High‐level decisions: A lesson from the Iran hostage rescue operation

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas, Amos Barzilay
We use the analytic hierarchy process to analyze the role of subjective factors in decision making as illustrated in the Iran rescue operation. Essentially, we show that a decision maker and that decision maker's advisors may differ in their estimates on whether an action should or should not...

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Higher education in the United States (1985–2000): Scenario construction using a hierarchical framework with eigenvector weighting

Thomas Saaty, Paul C. Rogers
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
The object of this paper is to illustrate an application of hierarchies and eigenvalues developed by the first author to the area of planning in higher education. We start with a brief discussion of the role of scenario construction in planning and follow it with a discussion of the role of hiera...

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Highlights and critical points in the theory and application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European Journal of operational research
This paper provides a detailed discussion with references on the fundamentals of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and in particular of relative measurement. The points discussed are grouped under the following categories: Structure in the AHP — Hierarchies and Networks, Scales of Measurement, Judgm...

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Hoover s Problem

Ke-Yuan Chen, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematics Magazine
J. Edgar Hoover, the former FBI Chief, is reported to have had a great aversion to left turns arising from th time his chauffeured car was hit while attempting a lft-hand turn. Thereafter, particularly when the old lawman visited a new city, the driver had to work out the route in advance to avoi...

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How many judges should there be in a group?

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
Journal: Annals of Data Science
This paper briefly examines the question of how many judges are needed to obtain valid and consistent judgments when using the analytic hierarchy process. It turns out that if a judge is experienced and well versed in an area, he can be sufficient to provide the judgments instead of diluting his ...

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How to Handle Dependence with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical Modelling
Hierarchic and network systems are discussed as basic frameworks of unstructured problems modeled by the Analytic Hierarchy Process. A hierarchy represents a linear chain of interactions, whereas a network allows for feedback in the form of cycles and loops. A theory is provided for the prioritie...

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How to make a decision: the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Interfaces
People make three general types of judgments to express importance, preference, or likelihood and use them to choose the best among alternatives in the presence of environmental, social, political, and other influences. They base these judgments on knowledge in memory or from analyzing benefits, ...

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How to make a decision: the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European journal of operational research
This paper serves as an introduction to the Analytic Hierarchy Process — A multicriteria decision making approach in which factors are arranged in a hierarchic structure. The principles and the philosophy of the theory are summarized giving general background information of the type of measuremen...

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How to Obtain a Global Reference Threshold in AHP/ANP

Claudio Garuti
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This paper has two main objectives. The first objective is to provide a mathematically grounded technique to construct local and global thresholds using the well-known rate of change method. The next objective, which is secondary, is to show the relevance and possibilities of applying the AHP/ANP...

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How to prioritize inventions

Thomas Saaty, Elena Rokou
Journal: World Patent Information
In this paper we consider many intangible criteria that influence the priorities and ranks of inventions as they contribute to human welfare, by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We apply the ideas to evaluate a number of modern inventions along with a few old ones. Both the categories of inv...

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HR Development Startegy through Competency Profile Analysis

Kumala I. Suryo, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Proceedings of the fifth International Symposium on The Analytic Hierarchy Process
A qualified staff must acquire a set of skill, of which both the individual staff and the organization is responsible for its development. The AMP methodology is used to identify the required skill, and their relative priority, for faculty members of PPM Institute of Management. The model is used...

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Hypermatrix of the Brain

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms
Decision-making, a natural and fundamental process of the brain, involves the use of pairwise comparisons. They are represented by a matrix whose entries belong to a fundamental scale, and from which an eigenvector of priorities that belongs to a ratio scale is derived. A simple decision is repre...

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Identification and evaluation of the effective criteria on customer satisfaction with Kitchen Worktops Product

Vahid Nabavi, Majid Azizi, Nemat Allah Mohebbi
Journal: iBusiness
In cycle of attraction and keeping the customers, fulfilling the customer satisfaction via identifying of their needs is very important. So, identifying the amount of customer satisfaction and informed of the field of strength and weakness in this regard, helps manager programming in line with cu...

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Identifying the customer satisfaction factors in furniture market

Majid Azizi, Seyed Alireza Dehghan, Mohsen Ziaie, Nematollah Mohebi
Journal: Economics, Management and Sustainability
The purpose of this research is to identify the influential factors on customer satisfaction in the Iranian furniture market in order to get acquainted with the fundamental items for planning future sales programs with the purposes of extolling competitive advantages. A commixture of 6 items an...

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Impact of disarmament nuclear package reductions

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Quantitative Assessment in Arms Control
The traditional view of conflict is that it is a struggle between people who are in the right and people who are in the wrong. If one wished to be more religious about it, our imprinting from childhood seems to say that conflict is a struggle between good and evil. A more realistic view of confli...

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Implementation of Quality Management System Based on ISO9001:2008 and its Effects on Customer Satisfaction (Case Study: Kitchen Worktops Factory)

Vahid Nabavi, Majid Azizi, Mehdi Faezipour
Journal: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of the ISO 9001 quality management system on customer satisfaction and show an application of an analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based method for measuring the customer satisfaction index (CSI). This will be useful to anyone who wants to have an...

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Implementing neural firing: towards a new technology

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Mathematical and Computer modelling
Following earlier work on neural firing and synthesis, we use the expressions we derived elsewhere in the literature for that purpose, to show how we can represent images and sounds with the aid of CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) computer program of the LISP computer language.

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Inconsistency and rank preservation

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
Conditions for rank preservation in a positive reciprocal matrix that is inconsistent are provided. Three methods of deriving ratio estimates are examined: the eigenvalue, the logarithmic least squares, and the least squares methods. It is shown that only the principal eigenvector directly deals ...

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Increasing the level of certainty in medical diagnosis Using AHP/ANP with compatibility index G in support of medical diagnosis

Claudio Garuti, Mario Sandoval
Journal: International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics
This paper is based on the development of a web-based tool, in support of medical decision making called medical sapiens (MS), oriented to improve diagnostic accuracy and diminishing the uncertainty of the initial diagnosis. It has been developed for four years working with several senior physici...

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Inner and outer dependence in the Analytic Hierarchy Process: The supermatrix and superhierarchy

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium of The Analytic Hierarchy Process
How does one structure a decision problem with dependencies derive priorities and make choices among interdependent alternatives?

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Integrating expert judgments into the process of measuring the efficiency of the national economy: DEA – AHP approach

Ana Krstic, Predrag Mimovic, Dragana Rejman Petrovic
Journal: International Journal for Quality Research
The paper measures the efficiency of the national economy of Republic of Serbia, in the period 2007-2017 year, marked by the global financial crisis and natural disasters that caused catastrophic consequences. First, the DEA method was applied, and then expert assessments were integrated into the...

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Integrating the AHP Methodology into the Procedures of Decision Making in governmental agencies

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz
Journal: The International Symposium of the Analytic Hierarchy Process 2014
The Gulf Cooperation Council Countries are challenged by unprecedented labor problems. These countries suffer from unemployment problems in spite of the fact that they offer jobs for millions of immigrants. Non indigenous fill 95% of the private sector jobs in these countries. Saudi Arabia as the...

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International center for conflict resolution

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Defense Analysis
Everyone agrees that international conflicts carry the seed of worldwide destruction, thus requiring an effective approach to their resolution. The major problem of international conflict resolution today, however, is how to avoid war rather than how to attain peace. Still, the continuance of a g...

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Introducing a status of access to raw material resources for manufacturers of cellulosic industries

Majid Azizi, Charles Ray
Journal: Forest Policy and Economics
Due to the implementation of Iran's Northern Forest Protection Plan for wood resources, manufacturers of wood and paper have a major problem in raw material supply in Iran; hence, they have to search for other resources to supply and procure their required raw material. Although there are som...

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Letter to the Editor—A Conjecture Concerning the Smallest Bound on the Iterations in Linear Programming

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
In solving linear programming problems accurate estimates of the number of iterations needed to reach the optimum are important to have. It has been mentioned in the literature that computing experience indicates this number of iterations to be of the order of twice the number of constraints. We ...

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Location selection for hardboard industry in Mazandaran provice

Majid Azizi, Mostafa Ramezanzadeh
Journal: Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries
This research presents an optimum framework for hardboard industry location selection in Mazandaran Province. Considering the existence of only two depreciated hardboard plants with very old technology in Iran, the establishment of new plants are vital. To materialize this goal, Mazandaran provin...

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Location selection for wood and paper industries in Khoozestan province according to effective criteria

A. Bayatkashkoli, A. Rafighi, Majid Azizi, M. Shamsian
Journal: JOURNAL OF WOOD AND FOREST SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Lignocellulosic resources of Khoozestan province are usable for wood and paper industry. The main questions are that, which places have the best conditions are select for development of wood and paper industries? Since, the methodologies of research were analytical and estimated. The research que...

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Location selection of MDF industry by Analytic Hierarchy Process, Case of the study Mazandaran province

Majid Azizi, Mostafa Ramezanzadeh
Journal: Economics, Management and Sustainability
This paper presents a framework for locating agricultural-residuals particleboard industry in the northern provinces of Iran. Particleboard industry is the only Iranian wood and paper industry with an export potential and the use of agricultural residuals as the raw material can help with increas...

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Making and validating complex decisions with the AHP/ANP

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
Several examples that serve to validate the AHP/ANP with matrices hierarchies and networks are given in this paper. They are then followed by a discussion of the real numbers and how they are generated without the need for an absolute zero, and how they define an absolute scale of measurement tha...

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Making decisions in hierarchic and network systems

Thomas Saaty, Mariya Sodenkamp
Journal: International Journal of Applied Decision Sciences
This paper summarises a mathematical theory of the measurement of both tangible and intangible factors, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and its generalisation to dependence and feedback, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) and illustrates their application to making complex multicriteria deci...

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Management decision making by the analytic hierarchy process: A proposed modification for large-scale problems

Rafikul Islam, Anisah Abdullah
Journal: J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development
The use of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for decision making is sometimes marred by the laborious effort of conducting a large number of pairwise comparisons, especially in the presence of a large number of criteria. The present empirical study attempts to investigate the possibility of el...

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Marketing applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Yoram Wind, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Management science
Several marketing applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are reviewed. The paper starts with a brief description of this process, which was developed by Thomas Saaty in 1971, including an eight-point outline of how to apply it. The thrust of the paper is a discussion of a number of ...

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Mathematical modeling of dynamic decisions; priorities and hierarchies with time dependence

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematics and computers in Simulation
The question often arises in regard to the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process: What would one do if the judgments where to change? A simple answer to that problem is that one should solve the new problem. But this is not what people usually have in mind. Presumably what they would like is a parame...

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MBNQA criteria in education: Assigning weights from a Malaysian perspective and proposition of an alternative evaluation scheme

Rafikul Islam
Journal: International Transactions in Operational Research
In order to improve quality and productivity among American companies, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) was launched by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the US Department of Commerce in 1987. Over the years, the award has proved to be effective in...

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Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Performance

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Although there is no agreed upon universal definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR), organizations are often ranked in terms of their CSR performance. However, two glaring gaps have been identified in the CSR literature. First, evaluation methodologies are questionable and often lack a...

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Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: A Comprehensive AHP Based Index

Asma Mohammed Bahurmoz
Although there is no agreed upon universal definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR), organizations are often ranked in terms of their CSR performance. However, two glaring gaps have been identified in the CSR literature. First, evaluation methodologies are questionable and often lack a...

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Measuring in Weighted Environments: Moving from Metric to Order Topology

Claudio Garuti
Journal: Applications and Theory of Analytic Hierarchy Process - Decision Making for Strategic Decisions
This is a chapter in the book: Applications and Theory of Analytic Hierarchy Process - Decision Making for Strategic Decisions. This chapter addresses the problem of measuring closeness in weighted environments (decision-making environments). This chapter show the importance of having a trustwort...

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Measuring the fuzziness of sets

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Cybernetics
Set theory begins to be useful when there is some natural criterion for defining belonging to a set. Sets of objects without properties are uninteresting. Elements are assigned to sets because they share properties or conform to a rule. A set of elements is said to be fuzzy when we allow some ele...

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Misuse of the Axiom of Independence in the Analytic Hierarchy process

Kirti Peniwati, David Hauser
Journal: The 3rd International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Some authors have proposed that the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) axiom of independence be relaxed to accommodate observations drawn from: a) examples of pairwise comparisons of alternatives in clusters in single criterion AHP problems, and b) examples of problems in which the criteria have th...

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Misuses of Clustering and Absolute Scales of Measurement in the Analytic Hierarchy process

Kirti Peniwati
Journal: The 3rd International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The grouping of elements, called clustering, is a fundamental operation in the Analytic Hierarchy Process. What elements are chosen and how they are clustered and located in a hierarchy have a profound effect on the outcome and the conclusions derived from the outcome. A valid AHP hierarchy must ...

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Modeling the graduate business school admissions process

Thomas Saaty, James France, Kathleen Riehle Valentine
Journal: Socio-economic planning sciences
Each year graduate business admissions committees must carefully evaluate prospective students. Committees must judge the performance of applicants with respect to a wide range of quantitative and qualitative criteria in order to select the best students. The overall process is complex and time c...

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Modeling unstructured decision problems—the theory of analytical hierarchies

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematics and computers in simulation
Quantitative modeling of unstructured decision problems with social implications is new and challenging and has pressing needs. A new approach to scaling using largest eigenvalues and reciprocal matrices and the effect of inconsistent judgment are introduced and relevant theory discussed. In this...

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Multi-criteria analysis of a new graduation course in a vocational education institution (in Brazilian Portuguese)

ANDREINA MOREIRA DA SILVA, EDILACY DA SILVA SAMPAIO, GISELY SOUZA CAMPOS MORAES , VALERIO SALOMON
Journal: Proceedings of the Brazilian Industrial Engineering Meeting​
Com o avanço da tecnologia e com a quantidade de informação que vem crescendo de forma significativa, as instituições de ensino tendem a ampliar seu quadro na área do conhecimento, ou seja, tem–se a necessidade de criar novos cursos para suprir o mercado de trabalho. Este trabalho tem como objeti...

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Multi-criteria assessment of the benefits of a supply chain management training considering green issues

Claudemir Leif Tramarico, Valerio Salomon, Fernando Augusto Silva Marins
Journal: Journal of Cleaner Production
Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is an important issue for organizations that spend considerable amounts of investments on personnel training annually. Although these investments present positive effects, the manner to assess the effectiveness of the training is unclear. Training, whose chara...

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Multi-criteria methods and techniques applied to supply chain management​

Valerio Salomon
Journal: Supply Chain Management
This book intends to be a complimentary reference for graduate and undergraduate courses of Business and Engineering. Readers not familiar with Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and supply chain management (SCM) may have a first glance, reading isolate chapters. Moreover, the sequential order...

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Multi-decisions decision-making: In addition to wheeling and dealing, our national political bodies need a formal approach for prioritization

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
Individuals, corporations and governments constantly face the extremely complex problem of ordering and prioritizing their numerous decisions according to urgency and importance. They need to sequence expenditures and allocate scarce resources to optimize the returns on their investments over tim...

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Multi-Decisions Rating Model: Establishing rescue policies for Regional Drinking Water Companies (PDAM) in Indonesia

Kirti Peniwati, Werner Brenner
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
Fresh water is abundant in Indonesia, but only about 20% out of more than 200 million of its population have access to clean water supplied by 306 Regional Drinking Water Companies (PDAMs) around the country. The poor performance of most PDAMs is due to high level of debt, lack of investment, and...

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Multicriteria approach to the evaluation of the key success factors of University spin-offs – the model of Analytic Network Process

A. Krstic, Predrag Mimovic
Journal: International Scientific Conference EBM, Contemporary Issues in Economics, Business and Management
This paper is published in International Scientific Conference EBM, Contemporary Issues in Economics, Business and Management, Conference Proceedings. ISBN 978-86-6091-049-5. Multicriteria approach to the evaluation of the key success factors of University spin-offs – the model of Analytic Netwo...

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Multicriterion decisions in systems with feedback

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical Modelling in Science and Technology
The process of setting priorities in systems with a network structure is more complex than it is in a hierarchy which is essentially linear. The composition of priorities in a hierarchy is a special case of composition in a system. Simple examples of composition in hierarchies with cycles between...

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Multiple-criteria location selection for wood kiln operations using AHP/TOPSIS

Rahim Mohebbi Gargari, Majid Azizi, Charles Ray, Asghar Tarmian, zam Dokht Safi Samghabadi
Journal: International Journal of Business and Systems Research
This study attempted to determine a suitable combination of multiple-criteria selection techniques for the best location for wood drying kiln operations in Iran. Utilising field studies across the wood-drying industry, limitations of existing selection-method criteria were identified, and a hiera...

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Negative priorities in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
In decision-making, there are often criteria that are opposite in direction to other criteria as in benefits (B) versus costs (C), and in opportunities (O) versus risks (R), and sometimes need to be distinguished by using negative numbers. In making paired comparisons of alternatives with respect...

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Negotiating the Israeli–Palestinian controversy from a new perspective

Thomas Saaty, H. J. Zoffer
Journal: Information Technology & Decision Making
In most long-lasting conflicts, each party's grievances increase while the concessions they are willing to make decline in number, quality, and perceived value. Both parties lose sight of what they are willing to settle for, generally exaggerate their own needs, and minimize the needs of the ...

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Neural synthesis of firing decisions in the brain

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Istanbul University Journal of the School of Business,
The brain generally miniaturizes its perceptions into what may be regarded as a model of what happens outside. We experience the world according to the capacity of our nervous system to register the stimuli we receive. In order to understand and control the environment there needs to be proportio...

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Neurons the decision makers, Part I: The firing function of a single neuron

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Neural Networks
This paper is concerned with understanding synthesis of electric signals in the neural system based on making pairwise comparisons. Fundamentally, every person and every animal are born with the talent to compare stimuli from things that share properties in space or over time. Comparisons always ...

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Neurons the decision makers, Part II: The firings of many neurons and their density; the neural network its connections and field of firings

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Neural Networks
This paper is concerned with the firing of many neurons and the synthesis of these firings to develop functions and their transforms which relate chemical and electrical phenomena to the physical world. The density of such functions in the most general spaces that we encounter allows us to use li...

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New Advances of the Compatibility Index G in Weighted Environments

Claudio Garuti
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This article addresses the problem of measuring closeness in weighted environments (decision-making environments). This article is relevant because of the importance of having a dependable cardinal measure of distance in weighted environments. A weighted environment is a non-isotropic structure w...

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New light on the theorem of perron

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Trabajos de Estadistica Y de Investigacion Operativa
We prove that the principal eigenvector of a positive matrix represents the relative dominance of its rows of ranking of alternatives in a decision represented by the rows of a pairwise comparison matrix.

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New product development in small and medium-sized technology based companies: a multiple case study

Eduardo Gomes Salgado, Valerio Salomon, Carlos Henrique Pereira Mello, Carlos Eduardo Sanches da Silva
Journal: Acta Scientiarum. Technology
The new product development (NPD) becomes more and more critical for the competitiveness, due to increasing internationalization of markets and diversification of products and decreasing life cycle of products. This paper addresses gaps in NPD literature, presenting a multiple case study involvin...

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NINA's decision: How to make better decisions and resolve conflicts-an essay for the layman

Thomas Saaty, H. J. Zoffer
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Decision making is a central activity of all people, usually done so automatically that we do not even realize that we are doing it every moment of every day of every year for all our lives. This silent and inarticulate approach worked well when humanity was fragmented and individuals and groups ...

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Nuclear balance and the parity index: The role of intangibles in decisions

Ami Arbel, Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
An approach to understanding and assessing issues concerning arms control is presented. Arms control has two main objectives: (1) decreasing the possibility of a nuclear exchange; and (2) limiting the scope and intensity of such an exchange. A framework is presented for dealing with those issues ...

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Observations on multiplicative composition in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
From the early years of development of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) I examined a number of alternatives for hierarchic composition that produced ratio scales. Ratio scales were always in my thinking because of my strong interest in physics. There one multiplies different ratio scales befo...

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Oil prices: 1985 and 1990

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: The Logic of Priorities
Today oil is the world’s major energy resource. It accounts for about 54 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. Because of conservation and the development of alternative resources in industrialized countries, the share of oil in the world’s total energy consumption is expected to decli...

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On Mathmatical Structures in Some Problems of Politics

Thomas Saaty
Journal: The Mathematics Teacher
In recent years there has been a remarkable surge of effort to develop quantitative foundations for the solution of political problems, both to increase understanding of the underlying structure and to improve predictions.

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On nonlinear optimization in integers

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Naval Research Logistics Quarterly
The purpose of this paper is to give some elementary theorems on optimization in integers of nonlinear expressions subject to simple equality constraints. Other than the complicated algorithms of integer linear-programming, there is a dirth of examples and a tradition to follow which might help ...

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On polynomials and crossing numbers of complete graphs

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Combinatorial Theory
A long-standing, unsolved problem is that of finding the minimum number of crossings of the edges in a complete graph when embedded on a surface of genus zero.

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On the invalidity of fuzzifying numerical judgments in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Liem Tran
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
Fuzzy set theory has serious difficulties in producing valid answers in decision-making by fuzzifying judgments. No theorems are available about its workability when it is applied indiscriminately as a number crunching approach to numerical measurements that represent judgments. When judgments ar...

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On the measurement of intengibles. A principal eigenvector approach to relative measurement derived from paired comparisons

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Notices of the American Mathematical Society
Nearly all of us have been brought up to believe that clear-headed logical thinking is our only sure way to face and solve problems. But experience suggests that logical thinking is not natural to us. Indeed, we have to practice, and for a long time, before we can do it well. Since complex proble...

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On the Proper Interpretation and Impact of the AHP Axiom of Independence in Single-Criterion and Multiple-Criteria Problems

David Hauser, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Multi-criteria decision analysis
Some authors have proposed that the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) axiom of independence be relaxed to accommodate observations drawn from (a) examples of pairwise comparisons of alternatives in clusters in single-criterion AHP problems and (b) examples of problems in which the criteria have th...

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On the relativity of relative measures–accommodating both rank preservation and rank reversals in the AHP

Ido Millet, Thomas Saaty
The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been criticized for allowing the introduction of new alternatives to cause rank reversals among existing alternatives. While in many cases this is a perfectly valid phenomenon there are also many cases where rank should be preserved. To address both contin...

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Operational gaming for energy policy analysis

Thomas Saaty, Fred Ma, Peter Blair
Journal: Energy Policy
A new approach to energy policy analysis is developed by structuring the interactive dynamic processes in energy environment systems Current energy system modelling efforts do not effectively account for multiple interests and the interaction of policy markers. This paper presents a methodology f...

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Operations Research: Some Contributions to Mathematics: Applied mathematics gets a new surge of life from techniques of operations research

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Science
The discussion of fuzzy sets indicates that set theory should be extended to make it more suitable for the development of algebraic structures with wider applications. Stochastic optimization, a synthesis of the three areas of continuum mathematics, is a rapidly growing field particularly in the ...

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Optimal site selection for fluting paper mill from agricultural wastes in Golestan Province Iran

Mohammad Vali, Ali Rafighi, Majid Azizi , Nemat Mohebbi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering
Today, the issue of site selection for industrial units in developing countries which are poor in wood resources is considered as a vital matter and it is one of the key measures in the process of building industrial and giving service units. In every country there are some provinces and states w...

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Optimization and the geometry of numbers: packing and covering

Thomas Saaty, Joyce M. Alexander
Journal: SIAM Review
There are a number of useful applications gradually arising out of the geometry of numbers. In this paper we give a brief survey of the fields of packing and covering, stating some results, and giving illustrations of methods of proof and approaches to the subject. We then mention and discuss a v...

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Optimized locating of fluting paper plant from agricultural residues using AHP (based on benefit and cost approach)

Abdollah Barimani, A. Ghasemian, Majid Azizi, S. M. Zabizadeh
Journal: International Journal of Lignocellulosic Products
A suitable location plays an important role in the competitiveness of a plant in the market and should be selected such that it allows access to strategic advantages compared with other competitors. The aim of the current study was identification optimized location of fluting paper plant from ...

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Optimum positions for m airports

Thomas Saaty
There is a set of n factories, which are located throughout the United States. The wares produced by these factories are delivered to local airports, where they are flown to one of two overseas airports, called distribution centers. The centers distribute the wares to a number of neighboring area...

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Origin of Neural Firing and Synthesis in Making Comparisons

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
The nervous system uses its own kind of mathematical function patterns for both external and internal realities. The conscious part of the nervous system is there to respond to what happens outside by regulating externally received information signals from the senses and the skin and muscles of t...

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Parallelism Between Space Geometry and Decision Making Space

Claudio Garuti
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The aim of this essay is show some interesting analogies between space geometry and decision making space, as well as, a possible unit of measure of distance for priority vectors coming from (for instance) an AHP/ANP structure, applying the compatibility index G as a new way of measure distance i...

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Parallels between the analytic hierarchy and network processes (AHP/ANP) and fractal geometry

Claudio Garuti, Isabel Spencer
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
The aim of this work is to show the parallelisms and analogies that exist in modeling and measuring of dependence and feedback processes, in physical and in decision making processes, that is, to compare among the scales of measurement of the physical world (geometry) and the scales of measuremen...

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Parametric objective function (part 1)

Saul Guss, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of the Operations Research Society of America
In the linear programming problem where there is a linear function to be optimized (called the objective function), it is desirable to study the behaviour of solutions when the (cost) coefficients in the objective function are parametrized. The problem is then to find the set of xj (j = 1, 2, …, ...

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Parametric objective function (part 2)—generalization

Saul Guss, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of the Operations Research Society of America
In Part 1 (Saaty, T. L., S. I. Gass. 1954. Parametric objective function (Part 1). J. Opns. Res. Soc. Am.2 316.), the cost function in the general linear programming problem was parametrized with one parameter and the problem of generating solutions completely studied. In Part 2, a generalization...

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Physics as a decision theory

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
We show that there is a close mathematical relationship between physics and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We argue that numerical scales used in physics must be interpreted in terms which the scientist understands through experience and through theories advocated by experts in the field. In phy...

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Portfolio selection through hierarchies

Thomas Saaty, Paul C. Rogers, Ricardo Pell
Journal: The journal of portfolio management
The method we will discuss addresses the huge task of ranking and choosing from among a large set of stocks in order to devide how much of our recources should be allocated to each of the stocks chosen.

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Prediction of the 1996 super bowl an application of the AHP with feedback

Thomas Saaty, D.S. Turner
Journal: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP’96)
This paper develops a refined benefiticost model using the supermatrix approach of the AHP to predict the outcome of the playoffs and the Super Bowl of the 1995-1996 season. Introduction In October 1995, we undertook the task of predicting (Sooty and Vargas, 1991)' the outcome of the 1996 Sup...

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Preference programming and inconsistent interval judgment matrices

Rafikul Islam, M.P. Biswal, S.S. Alam
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
The problem of derivation of the weights of alternatives from pairwise comparison matrices is long standing. In this paper, Lexicographic Goal Programming (LGP) has been used to find out weights from pairwise inconsistent interval judgment matrices. A number of properties and advantages of LGP as...

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Presentation of a Model to Achieve the Sustainable Development of Iran Wood Furniture Industry (Farsi)

N. Mohebbi, Majid Azizi, M. Ziaie, O. Hosseinzadeh
Journal: J. of wood & forest science and technology
Background and objectives: Development of non-oil exports is one of the pillars of strengthening the country's economic growth. Today furniture industry has a significant share in global trade, so the sustainable development and growth of this industry can have a significant impact on employm...

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Principles for Implementing a Potential Solution to the Middle East Conflict

Thomas Saaty, H. J. Zoffer
Journal: Notices of the AMS
The purpose of this paper is to show how the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) applies mathematics to deal with the most complex problems of the world in a comprehensive and holistic way—in this case the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This process has been helpful in finding solutions to some of th...

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Principles of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Expert judgment and expert systems
Cognitive psychologists have classified thinking into two types. This division has gone by many names. Aristotle referred to it as active versus passive reason [35]; Freud [10] as secondary versus primary process thinking; and Hobbes [14] as thought with or without “designe.” More recently the di...

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Prioritised challenges and critical success factors for delivering quality education in Malaysian private higher education institutions

Azilah Anis, Rafikul Islam
Journal: Quality Assurance in Education
The purpose of this paper is to develop a hierarchical model to rank the challenges faced by the private Malaysian higher education institutions (HEIs) in the provision of quality education and subsequently their corresponding critical success factors (CSFs) to address those challenges.

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Prioritization of ideas in an affinity diagram by AHP: an example of K-economy

Rafikul Islam
Journal: International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting
The affinity diagram, which is regarded as one of the seven new management tools, is used to gather a large amount of subjective data concerning an issue and subsequently classify them into several groups. The ideas (or factors) which are similar in nature or have affinity among themselves are pl...

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Prioritization of Service Quality Dimensions for Healthcare Sector

Rafikul Islam, Selim Ahmed, Kazi Md. Tarique
Journal: International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics
Due to the unique nature among the service industries, the overriding objective of the healthcare sector is to provide error free, impeccable services to their patients and clientele. It is not an option rather a norm for the healthcare sector to uphold and maintain the level of service that is q...

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Prioritization of the indicators and sub-indicators of maqasid al-shariah in measuring liveability of cities

Rafikul Islam, Norimah Md. Dali, Alias Abdullah
Journal: International journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Opinions were sought from a panel of two groups of Malaysian experts, i.e., the urban planners and the Maqasid al-Shariah scholars with the aim of developing an evaluation model via identifying and ranking the Maqasid indicators and sub-indicators for liveability and quality of life in cities. Th...

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Prioritizing issues of Malaysian vision 2020: An application of the analytic hierarchy process and quality function deployment

Rafikul Islam, Yusof Ismail
Journal: International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting
The objectives of this research are to obtain the people's perception towards a number of issues pertaining to the realization of Malaysian Vision 2020, to rank the challenges of Vision 2020 and to collect suggestions to expedite the realization of the vision. Based on a nationwide survey,...

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Priority as dominance in derived measurement: Invariance of the principal eigenvector

Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir, Thomas Saaty
Ranking is a process of prioritization. Priorities, as measurement rather than pure guessing, can be derived from paired comparison judgments that generalize on ratios of actual measurements. Paired comparisons involve the selection of the smaller of the two objects being compared as the unit and...

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Priority setting in complex problems

Thomas Saaty
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
There are three principles which one can recognize in problem solving. They are the principles of decomposition, comparative judgments, and synthesis of priorities. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a comprehensive framework to cope with the intuitive, the rational, and the irrational...

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Procedures for synthesizing ratio judgements

J. Aczel, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of mathematical Psychology
Requirements which seem reasonable for functions synthesizing judgements (quantities or their ratios), in particular separability, associativity or bisymmetry, cancellativity, consensus, reciprocal or homogeneity properties are investigated and all functions satisfying them are determined.

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Projecting average family size in rural India by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Molly Wong
Journal: Journal of Mathematical Sociology
In this study, cultural, economic as well as certain crucial demographic factors are considered as the determinants for projecting the average family size in rural India. We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process to analyze influences of the factors which enter implicitly in a rural couple's deci...

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Proposing a decision model for privatization of newsprint paper industry by applying ANP

Majid Azizi, Charles Ray
Journal: Cogent Business & Management
This study proposes a decision model for privatization of newsprint paper industry. Newsprint paper has very demanding market requirements, ones that must be adapted in quality and quantity with consumers’ media preferences. In Iran, there is one newsprint paper producer that supplies 70% of dome...

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Providing a Decision-Making Model for Importing Medium -Density Fiberboard Product

Majid Azizi, Elaheh Momeni, Nemat Mohebbi
Journal: Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science
Medium density fiberboard (MDF) product is one of the newest types of compressed wood panels that their consumption has had a lot of growth in recent years. MDF productions of every production unit are different from each other according to a number of physical and mechanical indices. In this art...

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Questions and answers: Valentina Ferretti interviews Tom Saaty

Valentina Ferretti, Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The following interview aims to stimulate the discussion about the key characteristics of Multicriteria Analysis techniques. In particular, the interview will work through the conceptual lens of decision processes taking place in the field of urban and territorial transformations.

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Rank According to Perron: A New Insight

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematics Magazine
Rank According to Perron: A New Insight

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Rank and the controversy about the axioms of utility theory--a comparison of AHP and MAUT

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium of The Analytic Hierarchy Process
A variety of authors have given real life examples that violate the utility theory axiom of independence from irrelevant alternatives. A theory that can only rank alternatives ione at a time such as Multiattribute Utility Theory has difficulty showing how introducing new alternatives that do not ...

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Rank from comparisons and from ratings in the Analytic Hierarchy/Network Processes

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
Rank preservation and reversal are important subjects in multi-criteria decision-making particularly if a theory uses only one of two ways of creating priorities: rating alternatives one at a time with respect to an ideal or standard, or comparing them in pairs. It is known that our minds can do ...

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Rank Generation, Preservation, and Reversal in the Analytic Hierarchy Decision Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Decision sciences
Decision making has the objective of finding the best alternative or set of alternatives by considering a number of goals, objectives, criteria, competitors, and other important factors. The analytic hierarchy process is a decision aid used to assist a decision maker in sorting out the complexity...

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Ranking by eigenvector versus other methods in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, G Hu
Journal: Applied Mathematics Letters
Counter-examples are given to show that in decision making, different methods of deriving priority vectors may be close for every single pairwise comparison matrix, yet they can lead to different overall rankings. When the judgments are inconsistent, their transitivity affects the final outcome...

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Ranking countries according to economic, social and political indicators

Kirti Peniwati, T Hsiao
Journal: Mathematical Modelling
Despite its inadequacies, the GNP is still the best known and most widely used economic indicator to measure development. A number of authors have considered otherrelevant indicators, such as life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy and so on, as measures of development. In this paper we offer...

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Ranking countries more reliably in the summer olympics

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
In this paper we consider the many intangible criteria that influence the outcome of the Summer Olympics by using the Analytic Network Process, and apply the ideas to evaluate the medals won and the country scores in the 2012 London Olympics. Both the categories of games and the events in each ga...

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Ratio Scales are Critical for Modeling Neural Synthesis in the Brain

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms
The brain generally miniaturizes its perceptions into what may be regarded as a model of what happens outside. We experience the world according to the capacity of our nervous system to register the stimuli we receive. In order to understand and control the environment there needs to be proportio...

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Ratio scales are fundamental in decision making

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP’96)
Multicriteria decision making depends On the use of numbers and scales to make trade-offs. We examine in detail the types of numerical scales of measurement there are and which ones seem to work better for measurement in a hierarchic model of a complex problem. It is argued that ratio scales play...

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Ratio scales derived from perturbations of consistent judgments

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Behaviormetrika
We derive ratio scales from paired comparison judgments in a reciprocal matrix A. When the judgments are consistent, we have a principal eigenvalue structure which is preserved when A is perturbed. Mathematical conditions are given on the size of the perturbations to produce a good approximation ...

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Rationing energy to industries: priorities and input-output dependence

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: The Logic of Priorities
A short time ago it was unthinkable and deemed an academic exercise to speak of rationing. People thought that there could be no crippling energy crisis because our energy czars and planners would presumably take our needs into their projections. Today the situation looks very different. Witness ...

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Reflections and projections on creativity in Operations Research and Management Science: a pressing need for a shift in paradigm

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
This paper is an outgrowth of a talk given at a plenary session of the national meeting of ORSA/TIMS (now INFORMS) in May of 1996. Rather than speculate on what might be the possible domain of OR/MS within a systems framework, the paper gives a sketch of what basic ideas there are today that can ...

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Reflections on Common Misunderstandings When Using AHP and a Response to Criticism of Saaty’s Consistency Index

Claudio Garuti
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This essay deals with misunderstandings which, in this author’s opinion, seem to prevail in the minds of some AHP critics. The main apparent problem is the lack of necessary knowledge about the scale concept including what a scale is, how it is mathematically defined, and what one can or cannot d...

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Reflections On Scales From Measurements, Not Measurements From Scale

Claudio Garuti
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This essay will discuss the different kinds of scales that are frequently used, and what can and cannot be done with them. We will also explore what absolute numbers are and how to work with them to deal with quantitative and qualitative data. From my point of view, this is the starting point for...

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Relative measurement and its generalization in decision making why pairwise comparisons are central in mathematics for the measurement of intangible factors the Analytic Hierarchy/Network Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: RACSAM-Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales. Serie A. Matematicas
According to the great mathematician Henri Lebesgue, making direct comparisons of objects with regard to a property is a fundamental mathematical process for deriving measurements. Measuring objects by using a known scale first then comparing the measurements works well for properties for which s...

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Remarks on the four color problem; the Kempe catastrophe

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematics Magazine
The original error discovered by Heawood in Kempe's attempt to prove the four-color conjecture is often encountered by many of those who follow the inductive argument approach to the problem. Perhaps the nature of the difficulty is not well appreciated. An old Chinese proverb urges that to know t...

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Representation of visual response to neural firing

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Mathematical and computer modelling
In this note, we give examples of the use of linear combinations of impulse response functions to represent visual images. We also derive expressions for estimating the parameters of these functions using the Fourier transform of stimuli.

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Resolution of retributive conflicts

Thomas Saaty
Journal: IFAC Proceedings Volumes
In prolonged confrontations, known here as retributive, the parties not only exact their own demands but also want to incur a high cost on the opponent. Success in resolving a conflict is measured by the gain: each party's benefits and the costs to the opponent compared with the perceived gain fo...

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Response to Holder's comments on the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of the Operational Research Society
Response to Holder's comments on the analytic hierarchy process

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Response to holder's comments on the Analytic Hierarchy Process: response to the response to the response

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of the Operational Research Society
It would have been fitting and proper were Holder, in his call for more validation of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to have validated his own vague suggestions for a better optics experiment with chairs; a power scale to fulfil his desire for non-linearity, and its credibility in applicat...

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Resume of useful formulas in queuing theory

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
This paper is intended as a convenient summary of some results in queuing, which in the author's opinion would be of value to investigators applying the theory to operational problems. The paper is neither intended as an elementary introduction, nor is it an exposition of the techniques used ...

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Risk: Its Priority and Probability, The Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Risk Analysis
Risk estimation involves priorities and probabilities which are themselves a form of priority of natural alternatives. This paper provides illustrations of how one can deal with risk and uncertainty using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, a new approach to measurement by ratio scales. The paper als...

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Scaling the membership function

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
To scale the membership function, a method is needed that can assess the importance of elements with respect to a property or criterion that is common among them. It is conceivable that membership should be determined in terms of several criteria tangible and intangible. The approach needed is a...

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Scenarios and priorities in transport planning: Application to the Sudan

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Transportation Research
This paper describes two related aspects of a transportation planning study recently completed for the Sudan—the use of scenarios and the prioritization of those scenarios and the associated transport projects. In the use of scenarios, considerable care was taken in the specification of different...

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Selecting a technical service provider by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Slamet Riyadi, Lokman Effendi, Rafikul Islam
Journal: Malaysian Management Review
The selection of a suitable technical service provider in the oil and gas industry can be a lengthy process. To expedite the procurement process, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is proposed as a means of identifying the best technical service provider to develop a field development pl...

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Selection of industrial maintenance strategy: Classical AHP and Fuzzy AHP applications

Robison Ohta, Valerio Salomon, Messias Borges Silva
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The selection of a maintenance strategy is a decision often made with uncertainty or subjectivity. This decision involves the prioritization of critical factors since there are several factors to be considered simultaneously. Decision-making generally depends on subjective assessments from expert...

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Selection of Institution of Higher Learning for Study Abroad: A Malaysian Case Study

Mahbubar Rahman, Rafikul Islam
Journal: Malaysian Management Review
This study examines why international students select the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) as their Higher Learning Institute (HLI) when pursuing higher education. Using a qualitative approach, with the philosophical foundation of case study method, and employing interviews to gat...

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Selection of plowing systems using hybrid SWOT-AHP method (Ijrood of Zanjan)

Kamran Afsahi, Asadollah Akram, Reza Alimardani, Majid Azizi
Journal: International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences
In order to advise system, the research results cannot be adequate. So for identifying the effective factors in system selecting, the experience of experts should be used. The present study examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of system at plowing in all of the use...

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Selection of project management tool: An ex-post facto case study

D. Mizuno, Valerio Salomon
Journal: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process​, Hong Kong, China
Brazilian federal law imposes to state organizations the supplier selection on price. Private organizations also adopt this rule, mainly by costs optimization or simplicity. However, lower-cost inputs do not guarantee lower-cost outputs. That is, lower-cost supplies may imply in higher-cost produ...

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Serbia joining the European Union: an ANP model for forecasting date

Predrag Mimovic, Ana Krstic, Jovana Savic
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
For the Republic of Serbia to acquire full membership in the European Union depends on a large number of factors, and it is very difficult to predict whether the country will attain membership and when it will happen. This paper first describes the Analytic Network Process (ANP), which is then ap...

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Seven is the magic number in nature

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
Where there is structure, the parts of the structure must function together with a degree of consistency and purpose. Specifically, I am thinking of dynamic systems in which there are action and reaction among the parts and their functions and also friction and resistance. Natural systems, such a...

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Seven more years of queues. A lament and a bibliography

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Naval research logistics quarterly
Everyone today knows that a queue is a waiting line. If one also takes the trouble to examine the literature, which now is nearing 2000 references on the subject, he might get the idea that all those contributing to the understanding of congestion phenomena are interested in doing something about...

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Should the UK have Brexited the European Union?

Lirong Wei, Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This paper is an analysis of Brexit, and asked the question, Should the UK have Brexited the European Union? We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to model the decision based on Benefit-Opportunities-Costs and Risks (BOCR). The AHP structure considers various factors that may be taken into...

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Some mathematical concepts of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Behaviormetrika
In this paper we give a skeletal outline of the foundations of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and some of its highlights. We also show that the principal eigenvector solution is essential for deriving the scale of priorities from the fundamental scale of judgments given in the matrix.

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Some mathematical topics in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical models for decision support
Decisions involving several criteria and alternatives need a correct procedure to combine weights to make tradeoffs and select the best alternatives. There are two parts to the problem, both of which need proof. The first is how to generate judgments and associate numbers with them, and the secon...

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Some stochastic processes with absorbing barriers

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B
Models for growth distributions of biological organisms are investigated in this paper. They are specializations of the birth–death equations with two absorbing barriers. The solutions we seek are the distributions of the time to grow from an initial dose to an infective dose. Equations for these...

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Speculating on the future of Mathematics

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Applied Mathematics Letters
Modern mathematics continues to lag the real world by not offering new theories and concepts. Despite great excitement within the field about all sorts of progress in the subject, the availability and application of mathematics to new political and social structures is primitive and its relevance...

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Stability analysis of the forward‐backward process: Northern Ireland case study

Joyce M. Alexander, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Behavioral Science
In this study, the forward and backward processes of planning are applied to conflict resolution in a way similar to that in which the forward process was applied in a previous paper by the authors . By repeated analysis of the policies of the parties to the conflict and possible reactions to the...

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Stimulus-response with reciprocal kernels: The rise and fall of sensation

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
The paper presents a theory for constructing response scales based on the reciprocal property of paired comparisons of stimuli from the same sensory continuum. Reciprocal paired comparisons define the pair estimator function K(s, t), the kernel of a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. ...

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Strategic model for location selection of solar wood drying by applying TOPSIS

Majid Azizi
Journal: Economics, Management and Sustainability
The location of solar wood drying has not been selected in Iran yet. One of important applications of solar energy is to manufacture solar wood drying units. Effective indicators in location of solar wood drying were identified and a hierarchy was constructed based on five major groups of criteri...

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Striving for Agility in a VUCA Environment: The Analytic Hierarchy/Network Process

Kirti Peniwati
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
The business world is currently operating in an increasingly challenging environment characterized as volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA). If anything, the current COVID-19 crisis is a demonstration of this. What began as a health crisis has become a social and business crisis of l...

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Studying and assessment of the effective criteria on opportunities attainment from offshore outsourcing in Iran wood furniture industry

Nemat Allah Mohebbi, Majid Azizi, Mohsen Ziyai, Mohammad Mahdi Faezipour
Journal: Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries
Nowadays, many of developing countries are looking for outsourcing opportunities of developed countries, because this will bring them many benefits. In this regard, the goal of this study is determining and prioritizing of the effective criteria on attainment of outsourcing benefits of the develo...

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Sustainability performance measurement with analytic network process and balanced scorecard: Cuban practical case

Frank Medel-González, Lourdes Francisca García-Ávila, Valerio Salomon, Jorge Marx-Gómez, Cecilia Toledo Hernández
Journal: Production
The recent years has arisen a global discussion in relation with how to incorporate sustainability at a business level. Corporate sustainability is a multidimensional concept, is the translation of Sustainable Development concept at a business level. Sustainability in organizations must be manage...

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Synthesis of complex criteria decision making: a case towards a consensus agreement for a Middle East conflict resolution

H. J. Zoffer, Asma Bahurmoz, Mohammed K. Hamid, Marcel Minutolo
Journal: Group Decision and Negotiation
The title of this paper reflects both the process and the outcome of the current undertaking. Frustrated with the current state of the Middle East but encouraged by earlier attempts at modeling complex problems, the authors participated in a panel discussion assembled to address the conflict and ...

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Technological choice in the less developed countries: An analytic hierarchy approach

Vasudevan Ramanujam, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Technological Forecasting and Social Change
A novel and practical approach is proposed for the assessment and selection of imported technology by the less developed countries. Technological choice is conceptualized as a multiobjective, multicriterion problem wherein subjective judgments and political processes play key roles. A new plannin...

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Terrorism, Patterns for Negotiations: Three Case Studies Through Hierarchies and Holarchies: a Study for the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

James P. Bennett, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
AS PART OF A STUDY FOR THE ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY THE USE OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHIES AND HOLARCHIES WERE FOUND TO BE A USEFUL GUIDE FOR NEGOTIATORS CONFRONTING TERRORISTS HOLDING HOSTAGES. WHEN THIS FINDING WAS APPLIED TO THE MUNICH MASSACRE OF 1972, THE OBJECTIVES AND INFLUENCES OF THE...

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That is not the Analytic Hierarchy Process: what the AHP is and what it is not

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Multi‐Criteria Decision Analysis
There are two basic principles that are totally missed by Salo and Hamalaninen in their attempt to reformulate the AHP, which is based on ratio scales, to fit multiattribute value theory, which is based on interval scales.

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The AHP: A multicriteria decision making methodology for shiftwork prioritizing

Claudio Garuti, Mario Sandoval
Journal: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
The objective of this paper is to show that the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a very powerful methodology for designing shiftwork schedules. Manufacturing, mining and other large industrial operations often run around the clock and their employees report for work in shifts. The huge number ...

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The allocation of intangible resources: the Analytic Hierarchy Process and linear programming

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas, Klaus Dellmann
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
An intangible is an attribute that has no scale of measurement. Intangibles such as effort and skill arise in conjunction with resource allocation but are not usually included directly in a mathematical model because of the absence of a unit of measurement. However, intangibles can be quantified ...

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The analytic hierarchy and analytic network measurement processes: applications to decisions under risk

Thomas Saaty
Journal: European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
Mathematics applications largely depend on scientific practice. In science measurement depends on the use of scales, most frequently ratio scales. A ratio scale there is applied to measure various physical attributes and assumes a zero and an arbitrary unit used uniformly throughout an applicatio...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process and human resource allocation: Half the story

Thomas Saaty, Kirti Peniwati, Jennifer Shang
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a way to rank the alternatives of a problem by deriving priorities. A question that occurs in practice is: what is the best combination of alternatives that has the largest sum of priorities and satisfies given constraints? This leads one to consider ...

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The analytic hierarchy process and linear programming in human resource allocation

Thomas Saaty, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP’96)
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a way to rank the alternatives of a problem by deriving priorities. A question that occurs in practice is: what is the best combination of alternatives that has the largest sum of priorities and satisfies given constraints? This leads one to consider ...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process and utility theory: Ratio scales and interval scales

Rozann Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP’96)
This paper is a brief summary of the successful workability of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (All!') free of problems and paradoxes. As a theory of ratio scale measurement, the AHP has found multiple and diverse applications in priority setting, decision making, planning , resource allocatio...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process applied to complexity

Thomas Saaty, Nina Begicevic
Journal: International Journal of Economics and Business Research
Even in science, there is always the human element of using our own assumptions in logic, our feelings, our values and numerous criteria we must deal with. In addition, we often have to include the measurements of tangibles that always need agreed upon subjective judgement to interpret what exact...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process in conflict management

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of Conflict Management
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a theory of measurement. When applied in decision‐making, it assists one to describe the general decision operation by decomposing a complex problem into a multi‐level hierarchic structure of objectives, criteria, subcriteria and alternatives. The AHP provi...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process without the theory of oskar perron

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
It is known and has been mathematically proven that the principal eigenvector is necessary for deriving priorities from judgments in the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). According to the work of Oskar Perron, the principal eigenvector can be obtained as the limiting power of a positive matrix. I...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process: A new approach to deal with fuzziness in architecture

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Architectural Science Review
A degree of fuzziness accompanies complex architectural problems. The concept of fuzziness can be compared to the hierarchy of the nervous system. Three types of fuzziness can be isolated: instantaneous, ongoing and long term. In this paper, the need for the development of a conceptually simple f...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process: how to measure intangibles in a meaningful way side by side with tangibles

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Symposium on QFD, ISQFD

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Some observations on the paper by Apostolou and Hassell

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Accounting Literature
Apostolou and Hassell in their overview of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and its applications to accounting included a section on some theoretical questions about the AHP that differ considerably from my own understanding as the creator of that theory. There are now more than 1,200 papers ...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process: The Possibility Theorem for Group Decision making

Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on The Analytic Hierarchy Process
Arrow's Impossibility Theorem says that it is generally impossible to derive arational group choice from ordinal comparisons made by the individual members. This paper demonstrates that, at appropriate consistency levels, and with the use of judgments on a cardinal scale, the Analytic Hierarc...

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process: wash criteria should not be ignored

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: International Journal of Management and Decision Making
In this short paper it is shown that care is required to perform the appropriate normalisation needed to derive the right set of priorities from paired comparisons when criteria are added or deleted in a decision problem. This is particularly true for criteria with respect to which the alternativ...

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The application of analytic hierarchy process in higher-learning institutions: A literature review

Azilah Anis, Rafikul Islam
Journal: J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development
Currently, there has been increasing interest in the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in the educational sector. However, little effort has been made in reviewing its applications particularly in higher-learning institutions (HLIs). Thus, this paper attempts to systematically r...

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The application of Analytical Network Process to environmental prioritizing criteria for coastal oil jetties site selection in Persian Gulf coasts (Iran)

Mansoureh Hasanzadeh, Afshin Danehkar, Majid Azizi
Journal: Ocean & Coastal Management
Oil jetties are among the most effective land structures, which have cause a different potential for coastal environment destruction. These effects relate to the oil products of these industries that cause extensive oil pollution in coastal regions. Thus, the identification and prioritization of ...

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The computational algorithm for the parametric objective function

Saul Guss, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Naval research logistics quarterly
If a linear programming problem involves two objective functions, it is desirable to learn all solutions depending on the relative weight attached to the two functions. This paper presents details of an algorithm which finds these solutions systematically.

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The Conflict in South Africa

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: The Logic of Priorities
The domestic strife in South Africa between ruling whites and subordinated blacks threatens to become a major conflict of violent dimensions in the African continent. This strife is primarily a consequence of racial policies promulgated by the white apartheid regime. Donald Woods (1978) describes...

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The Conflict in South Africa

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: The Logic of Priorities
The domestic strife in South Africa between ruling whites and subordinated blacks threatens to become a major conflict of violent dimensions in the African continent. This strife is primarily a consequence of racial policies promulgated by the white apartheid regime. Donald Woods (1978) describes...

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The conflict in South Africa: directed or chaotic

David Tarbell, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Peace Science
The domestic strife in South Africa between ruling whites and subordinated blacks threatens to become a major conflict of violent dimensions in the African continent. This strife is primarily a consequence of racial policies promulgated by the white, apartheid regime. Donald Woods (1978) describe...

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The decision by the US congress on China’s trade status: a multicriteria analysis

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Models, Methods, Concepts & Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
In this paper, we used a decision making tool, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), to analyze a decision to select a trade status for China that is in the best interest of the United States before that decision came before Congress for a vote.

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The Eigenvector in lay language

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Decision making depends on identifying a structure of criteria and alternatives of a decision. It also depends on experience and judgments to select the best alternative. In the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for decision making the criteria and alternatives are prioritized by forming matrices ...

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The evaluation of effective criteria on site selection for energy production units from cellulosic biomass in Iran

Majid Azizi, Fatemeh Rahimi, Mohammad Amin Jonoobi, Mosen Ziaie
Journal: Economics, Management and Sustainability
Both Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) techniques were used successfully to evaluate the effective criteria on site selection for energy production unit development from cellulosic biomass in Iran. The results showed that the benefits criteria ...

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The forward and backward processes of conflict analysis

Joyce M. Alexander, Thomas Saaty
Journal: Behavioral Science
In this study, the forward process of planning is applied to conflict resolution, by structuring a conflict according to the levels of a conceptual hierarchy. The parties to the conflict form the first level, their objectives are at the second level, and possible solutions are at the third and fi...

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The future of operations research in the government

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Interfaces
The crucial thrust of this report develops some ideas about how operations research and management science may increase their effective participation in high level governmental decision making. The opportunity confronting operations research to participate actively in charting the future of our s...

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The general case of dependence in hierarchic decision theory

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Toward Interactive and Intelligent Decision Support Systems
A hierarchy is a simple structure used to represent the simplest type of functional (contextual or semantic) dependence of one level or component of a system on another in a sequential manner. It is also a convenient way to decompose a complex problem in search of causeeffect explanations in step...

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The Group Decision Making for location Analysis of Wood Industry plants, the case of Iran

Majid Azizi
Journal: Journal of the Institute of Wood Science
The improper sites of plywood and veneer factories have caused the unsatisfactory production. For future plants, it is decided to analyze the problem through scientific studies. Influential indicators for this matter were identified and an hierarchy was constructed based on five major groups of c...

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The integrated application of the AHP and DEA methods in evaluating the performances of higher education institutions in the Republic of Serbia

Ana Krstic, Predrag Mimovic
Journal: Economic Horizons
The measurement and evaluation of performance are critical for the efficient and effective functioning of the economic system, because this allows for the analysis of the extent to which the defined objectives are achieved. Organizational performance is measured by different methods, both quantit...

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The legitimacy of rank reversal

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Omega
WE ARE GLAD to be finally'answering Belton and Gear's concerns expressed in their article in Omega [l]. There are two points they make in their letter. The first has to do with rank reversal, and the second with how to ask the question by minimizing fuzziness. Our response is organized into four ...

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The minimum number of intersections in complete graphs

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zarankiewicz has developed results concerning the minimum number of edge intersections, when drawn in a plane, of the bipartite graph consisting of two sets of vertices with one edge joining each element of one set to each element of the other set. When each set has three vertices, we have one of...

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The model of multiple criteria decision making to determine the optimal product and identify target markets based on poplar, alder and loblolly-pine

S. B. Hosseini, Majid Azizi, Mehdi Kalagar, Mehdi Moradipour
Journal: Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries
27 percentage of Gilan province (North of Iran) with approximately 150 thousand hectares is under cover of Shafaroud Forest Company which is utilized in form of 73 forestry plans. Regarding to ecological futures of the region, promising species and the Shafaroud's potential, three species con...

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The Modern Science of Multicriteria Decision Making and Its Practical Applications: The AHP/ANP Approach

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
This paper presents a summary of the discrete mathematical part of my work, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and its generalization to dependence and feedback, the Analytic Network Process (ANP), for measuring tangible and intangible factors, particularly as applied to decision making. The fa...

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The Need for Adding Judgment in Baysian Prediction

Thomas Saaty, Lei Zhang
Journal: International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making
There are many examples of successful application of the famous Bayes’ theorem to forecast the outcome of causes or influences of events. However, there are also many examples of failures of just using probabilities and statistics without also using judgments in each particular application. This ...

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The number of vertices of a polyhedron

Thomas Saaty
Journal: The American Mathematical Monthly
The number of vertices of a polyhedron

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The Peruvian Hostage Crisis of 1996–1997: What Should the Government Do?

Thomas Saaty, Enrique Mu
Journal: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
How should the Peruvian Government resolve the Japanese embassy takeover hostage crisis? As of this writing, MRTA operatives continue to hold 72 hostages and demand the release of their jailed comrades among other concessions. We have used the Analytic Hierarchy Process decision methodology to an...

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The Possibility of Group Choice: Pairwise Comparisons and Merging Functions

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Social Choice and Welfare
Preferences in Arrow’s conditions are ordinal. Here we show that when intensity of preference represented by reciprocal pairwise comparisons is considered, it is always possible to construct an Arrowian social welfare function using a two-stage social choice process. In stage 1, the individual pa...

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The possibility of group choice: pairwise comparisons and merging functions

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: Social Choice and Welfare
Preferences in Arrow’s conditions are ordinal. Here we show that when intensity of preference represented by reciprocal pairwise comparisons is considered, it is always possible to construct an Arrowian social welfare function using a two-stage social choice process. In stage 1, the individual pa...

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The possibility of group welfare functions

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making
This paper gives a brief overview of the well-known impossibility-possibility theorem in constructing a social welfare function from individual functions. The Analytic Hierarchy Process uses a fundamental scale of absolute numbers to represent judgments about dominance in paired comparisons. It i...

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The rationality of punishment—measuring the severity of crimes: an AHP-based orders-of-magnitude approach

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir, Jennifer Shang
We propose an innovative AHP-based model to assess the severity of the harms a criminal commits to society in a comprehensive and coherent way. Different from the traditional approach of structuring alternatives into one level, we organize the alternatives into multiple levels of that hierarchy. ...

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The scope of human values and human activities in decision making

Thomas Saaty, Nina Begicevic
Journal: Applied Soft Computing
During and at the end of Olympic games, we are always given the number of gold, silver and bronze medals won by each country and often the total number won as an indicator of the surmised winner. The groups that report the medal count in this manner indicate that they believe all medals are the s...

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The serious omission of comparisons in aristotle

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Comparisons are the bedrock of all human thinking no matter where it is done on this earth in every culture. We compare things with one another and with themselves through memory to know if they are what we are looking for. We need memory and time to do that regardless of how brief and spontaneou...

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The seven pillars of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Multiple Criteria Decision Making in the New Millennium
The seven pillars of the AHP, some highlights of which are discussed in the paper, are: 1) ratio scales derived from reciprocal paired comparisons; 2) paired comparisons and the psychophysical origin of the fundamental scale used to make the comparisons; 3) conditions for sensitivity of the eigen...

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The Sudan transport study

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Interfaces
The Sudan, population 18.2 million, in area the largest country in Africa is traversed by the White and Blue Niles meeting at Khartoum and blessed with rain. It has the potential to be a breedbasket for Africa and the Middle East. Of an estimated 200 million agricultural acres, only 17 million ar...

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The Three Laws of Thought, Plus One: The Law of Comparisons

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Axioms
The rules of logic are nearly 2500 years old and date back to Plato and Aristotle who set down the three laws of thought: identity, non-contradiction, and excluded middle. The use of language and logic has been adequate for us to develop mathematics, prove theorems, and create scientific knowledg...

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The unknown in decision making: What to do about it

Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir, Thomas Saaty
Journal: European journal of operational research
The unknown or “other” that affects our lives is what we usually very much want to know about to cope with uncertainty. We often suspect that it affects us with partial and indefinite evidence that it exists but we only have uncertain feelings about it. Even when we do not know what it is we woul...

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The US-OPEC energy conflict the payoff matrix by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of Game Theory
In this paper we study the U.S.-OPEC oil conflict and compute the payoff matrix for each of the two players using the Analytic Hierarchy Process by first evaluating the strategies of each player according to their intrinsic merits and then according to their relative strengths when considered aga...

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The Use of AHP in Sustainable Forest Management Certification

Mubariq Achmad, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: Proceedings of the fifth International Symposium on The Analytic Hierarchy Process
Sustainable forest management (SFM) certification is a process to determine whether a forest management unit or company has been operating and performing at the acceptable degree of sustainability. The Indonesian Eco-labeling Institute (LEI) has been establishing a certification system using the ...

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Theory of measurement of impacts and interactions in systems

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Systems Methodology in Social Science Research
What is being frequently tested in society today is not our engineering skill or our ability to bring technology to bear on life’s problems, but our sense of priorities and our capacity to make trade-offs between various factors that have an impact on life. The trade-offs cannot all be measured i...

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There is no mathematical validity for using fuzzy number crunching in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
Fuzzy logic has difficulty producing valid answers in decision-making. Absent are theorems to prove that it works to produce results already known that are being estimated with judgments by transforming such judgments numerically. The numerical representation of judgments in the AHP is already fu...

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Thirteen colorful variations on Guthrie

Thomas Saaty
Journal: The American Mathematical Monthly
After careful analysis of information regarding the origins of the four-color conjecture, Kenneth O. May concludes that: It was not the culmination of a series of individual efforts that flashes across the mind of Francis Guthrie while coloring a map of England... his brother communicated the co...

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Time dependent decision-making dynamic priorities in the AHP/ANP: Generalizing from points to functions and from real to complex variables

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
Because good decisions depend on the conditions of the future, and because conditions vary over time, to make a good decision requires judgments of what is more likely or more preferred over different time periods. There are at least three ways to deal with dynamic decisions. One is to include in...

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Time-dependent solution of the many-server Poisson queue

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Operations Research
In this paper we obtain the Laplace transform of the transient probabilities of the ordered queuing problem, with Poisson inputs, multiple channels, and exponential service times. Explicit expressions are derived for the two-channel case and known equilibrium conditions are shown to hold. The pro...

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To agree or Not to Agree, That is the Question: Choice Aggregation in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Sibs von Solms, Kirti Peniwati
Journal: The 6th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
This paper presents theoretical arguments for the importance of participative decision- making, lists several problems related to group decision-making and presents and discusses how the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) can address these problems. Particular attention is focussed on how the ind...

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Transport planning with multiple criteria: the Analytic Hierarchy Process applications and progress review

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of advanced transportation
Five examples of applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are made to illustrate the different uses of this ratio scale multicriteria decision method in transportation. They include a commuter route selection hierarchy, a best mix of routes to Pittsburgh's new International Airport, a...

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Two theorems on the minimum number of intersections for complete graphs

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Combinatorial Theory
After summarizing results of work on a conjecture regarding the minimum number of intersections of a complete graph drawn in the plane, the paper gives two theorems: one regarding a realization scheme for the conjectured quantity, and the other regarding a proof that essentially, the result would...

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Two-stage model for the evaluation suppliers in different types of supply chains

Rejman Petrovic, Predrag Mimovic
Journal: International Journal for Quality research
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to, based on the model developed to improve supplier performance and models for supplier evaluation and ranking in different types of supply chains, contribute to the expansion of existing conceptual frameworks for measuring supplier performance, indicating ...

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U
Uncertainty and rank order in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Thomas Saaty, Luis Vargas
Journal: European Journal of Operational Research
The Analytic Hierarchy Process uses paired comparisons to derive a scale of relative importance for alternatives. We investigate the effect of uncertainty in judgment on the stability of the rank order of alternatives. The uncertainty experienced by decision makers in making comparisons is measur...

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Using ANP and BOCR Structure for Location Analysis of Plywood and Veneer Industry Plants, the Case of Iran

Majid Azizi, S. Amiri , M. Modarres
Journal: Journal of the Institute of Wood Science
The aim of this article is to show how to select the best location for the establishment of wood industry units in Iran. The decision is examined in a framework of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (the BOCR), called the merits of the decision. A hierarchy is used to prioritize the BOCR t...

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Using the analysis of options technique to analyze a community conflict

HENRY BAIN, NIGEL HOWARD
Journal: Journal of Conflict Resolution
Perhaps one of the greatest needs in dealing with social and political conflict is to develop methods that spell out and analyze in detail who the participants in a conflict are, what their options are, and how they are expected to act given their own set of preferences. In general we need to sor...

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Using TOPSIS for Location Analysis of Wood Industry Plants: The Case of Iran

Majid Azizi, A Memariani
Journal: OR Insight
The improper siting of plywood and veneer factories has given rise, in Iran, to unsatisfactory production. For future plants, it has been decided to analyze the problem on a more scientific basis. A hierarchy was constructed based on five major groups of criteria, and the weight of the indicators...

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W
What is relative measurement? The ratio scale phantom

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
Traditionally, measurement scales with a unit are assumed to be available to measure and rank alternatives. However, such scales are scarce and it is often desired to rank alternatives on many tangible and intangible criteria. How? Relative measurement is a method for deriving ratio scales from p...

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When is a decision-making method trustworthy? Criteria for evaluating multi-criteria decision-making methods

Thomas Saaty, Daji Ergu
Decision makers often face complicated decision problems with intangible and conflicting criteria. Numerous multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods have been proposed to handle the measurement of the priorities of conflicting tangible/intangible criteria and in turn use them to choose the b...

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Who won the 2008 Olympics? A multicriteria decision of measuring intangibles

Thomas Saaty
Journal: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
It often happens that at the end of Olympics games the medals won by more than one country are many and close in total number as in the 2008 games where China won 100 medals with many gold ones and the United States won 110 medals but with a lesser number of gold medals. The question is: Although...

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Why the magic number seven plus or minus two

Thomas Saaty, Mujgan Sagir Ozdemir
Journal: Mathematical and computer modelling
In 1956, Miller conjectured that there is an upper limit on our capacity to process information on simultaneously interacting elements with reliable accuracy and with validity. This limit is seven plus or minus two elements. He noted that the number 7 occurs in many aspects of life, from the seve...

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Words from the AHP Creator

Thomas Saaty
Journal: International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Let me take this occasion to wish this journal and its contributors my very best. It is a joyful occasion to have our own journal for decision making with the AHP/ANP and my message to you follows.

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